WEEDS TO WHACK

You can help our catchment by knowing about local weeds and removing them along the creeks or containing and managing them in your garden. A weed is a plant growing where it’s not wanted. That doesn’t mean it’s bad, just bad here. Some weeds can be beautiful. In the suburbs, where most weeds have escaped from gardens into the bush or along waterways, many were once highly-prized.

Enoggera’s Dirty Dozen – Our Worst Weeds

While all weeds are unwanted, there are some weeds that seriously threaten our efforts to restore the natural habitat in Enoggera Creek catchment. The whole Weeds to Whack list below contains about 200 plants, but most bushcarers will tell you they spend 90% of their efforts on just 12 weeds. These weeds are difficult to control, smother native plants, invade bushland and your backyard. These are Enoggera’s dirty dozen:

Database of Enoggera Catchment weeds

The list of plants below is a searchable database of Enoggera Catchment weeds. Other useful references are the Brisbane City Council Weed Identification Tool and the Australian Government’s Weeds in Australia information page.

Abutilon grandifolium (MALVACEAE) Hairy Abutilon

Abutilon grandifolium (MALVACEAE) Hairy Abutilon

A native of South America, Abutilon grandifolium is a garden escapee found on waste ground. It is a shrub to 2 m (sometimes more) with hairy stems and leaves. The hairs are simple, to 5 mm. Deeply lobed, toothed leaves to 15 cm come to a point at the tip....

Abutilon pictum (MALVACEAE) Flowering Maple, Chinese Lantern

Abutilon pictum (MALVACEAE) Flowering Maple, Chinese Lantern

Abutilon pictum is a a shrub growing to 5 m tall native to Brazil, a popular ornamental plant in subtropical gardens and has become naturalised in Central America. A large and relatively dense population of this species (consisting of dozens of large plants...

Acetosa sagittata (POLYGONACEAE) Climbing Dock, Turkey Rhubarb

Acetosa sagittata (POLYGONACEAE) Climbing Dock, Turkey Rhubarb

Arrowhead-shaped, light green leaves, stems have purplish ridges running along the length. Large tubers, up to 15 cm long, form near the base of the plant, underground stems grow out with more tubers growing on these stems. Can regrow from the tubers or from...

Ageratina riparia (ASTERACEAE) Mistflower, Creeping Crofton Weed

Ageratina riparia (ASTERACEAE) Mistflower, Creeping Crofton Weed

Perennial scrambling herb or shrub, sometimes to 1 m but usually smaller and scrambling (decumbent); native to Central and South America. A weed of damp areas such as gullies and creek banks. Leaves paired, narrow. Quickly invades frost free slopes. Leachate...

Ageratum houstonianum (ASTERACEAE) Billy Goat Weed

Ageratum houstonianum (ASTERACEAE) Billy Goat Weed

Native to tropical America, Billy Goat Weed is an annual or short-lived perennial herb growing to 1 m. It is a widespread weed of disturbed areas. A common weed but not a particularly damaging one. Stems and leaves are softly hairy. Mostly opposite but...

Albizia lebbeck (FABACEAE) Indian siris

Albizia lebbeck (FABACEAE) Indian siris

Habit: A large spreading tree which is native to South Asia and northern Western Australia. Has spread into Queensland and is spreading south into South-East Queensland. This plant of Albizia lebbeck was on the creek at Riaweena Street, near the creek...

Aleurites moluccana (EUPHORBIACEAE) Candlenut

Aleurites moluccana (EUPHORBIACEAE) Candlenut

Also known as Candleberry, Indian Walnut, Kemiri, Varnish tree or Kuku'i nut tree, Candelnut is a rainforest tree of Polynesia, South East Asia, (and North Queensland) now becoming a pest in suburban Brisbane. Its early history is unknown because it was...

Alternanthera brasiliana (AMARANTHACEAE) Purple Joyweed

Alternanthera brasiliana (AMARANTHACEAE) Purple Joyweed

A cultivar of Alternanthera brasiliana related to Alligator Weed A. philoxeriodes and Khaki Weed A. pungens. It comes from tropical and subtropical Central and South America. An emerging weed in the Enoggera catchment due to its heavy use as an ornamental...

Alternanthera pungens (AMARANTHACEAE) Khaki Weed

Alternanthera pungens (AMARANTHACEAE) Khaki Weed

Khaki weed Alternanthera pungens is a widespread weed native to South America. Pungens means sharp. The plant is spread readily by its many white-yellow prickly burrs carried by contact with animals and people. Grows in dense patches flat on the ground. It...

Amaranthus viridis (AMARANTHACEAE) Green Amaranth

Amaranthus viridis (AMARANTHACEAE) Green Amaranth

An annual herb with an erect or semi-erect habit, growing to 1 m in height, native to tropical America. A common weed in gardens, roadsides, parks, pastures, cultivation and other disturbed sites. Stems can be hairless (glabrous) or sparsely hairy. Leaves...

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ASTERACEAE) Annual Ragweed

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ASTERACEAE) Annual Ragweed

An annual herb to 2 metres. Native to eastern North America. This weed has been sighted spreading rapidly along Bulimba Creek in Wishart and Sunnybank. Declared a noxious weed in Queensland, South Australia and the Northern Territory. Leaves are opposite at...

Anredera cordifolia (BASELLACEAE) Madeira Vine

Anredera cordifolia (BASELLACEAE) Madeira Vine

Madeira Vine has been declared a Weed of National Significance. Habit and flowers A perennial, twining or climbing vine, forming large numbers of tubers along stems and from the roots. One of the worst weeds of the Enoggera catchment. In bushland, the vines...

Antigonon leptopus POLYGONACEAE Coral vine

Antigonon leptopus POLYGONACEAE Coral vine

Coral vine is native to Mexico, regularly escaping into bushlands and creek edges in South-East Queensland. A perennial vine to 12 metres in length, climbs by tendrils. Attractive green heart-shaped leaves to 10 cm. In summer the vine produces large...

Archontopheonix alexandrae (ARECACEAE) Alexandra Palm

Archontopheonix alexandrae (ARECACEAE) Alexandra Palm

A tall palm when fully grown (to about 25 m) the Alexandra Palm is closlely related to the locally native Bangalow Palm A. cunninghamiana but is a North Queensland plant. The palms found in bush regeneration sites have typically escaped from residential...

Ardisia elliptica MYRSINACEAE Shoebutton Ardisia

Ardisia elliptica MYRSINACEAE Shoebutton Ardisia

This specimen was found on a "creek crawl" as part of the surveying of Ithaca Creek, undertaken at the beginning of the Ithaca Intact project, early 2007. Dr Sheldon Navie identified it as Ardisia elliptica Shoebutton Ardisia. It is a problem species in...

Aristolochia elegans (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE) Dutchman’s Pipe

Aristolochia elegans (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE) Dutchman’s Pipe

A climber with heart-shaped (cordate) leaves and pipe-shaped flowers. Native to Brazil and Argentina. A fast growing and smothering vine. All the parts of the plant are poisonous and should not be handled without gloves. Dutchman's Pipe is particularly...

Arundo donax (POACEAE) Giant Reed

Arundo donax (POACEAE) Giant Reed

A tall perennial reed, native to freshwater in the Mediterranean region. It forms dense stands on disturbed sites, sand dunes, in wetlands and riparian habitats. Generally growing to 6 m, in ideal conditions it can exceed 10 m, with hollow stems 2-3 cm...

Asclepias curassavica (ASCLEPIADACEAE) Red head cotton bush

Asclepias curassavica (ASCLEPIADACEAE) Red head cotton bush

An erect perennial herb, native to tropical America, sometime developing a woody base, to about 1 m in disturbed sites such as roadsides, creek banks and neglected pastures. Stems are slender and erect and exude a milky sap (latex). Leaves are opposiite,...

Asparagus africanus (ASPARAGACEAE) Climbing Asparagus Fern

Asparagus africanus (ASPARAGACEAE) Climbing Asparagus Fern

Asparagus africanus is a hardy, prickly vine native to southern Africa that tolerates shade and dry, harsh conditions. Declared (Class 3) in Queensland. Leaves are in fact needle-like growths (cladodes). Once this weed gets established it can smother trees....

Asparagus falcatus (ASPARAGACEAE) Asparagus Fern

Asparagus falcatus (ASPARAGACEAE) Asparagus Fern

Commonly called sicklethorn, one of the asparagus ferns from South and west Africa, Sri Lanka, the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean. Thin leaves on long thin stems with very fine thorns. Prefers semi-shaded situations, likes regular moisture, very...

Asparagus virgatus (ASPARAGACEAE) Asparagus Fern, Broom asparagus

Asparagus virgatus (ASPARAGACEAE) Asparagus Fern, Broom asparagus

South African Asparagus with fine, soft, dark green leaves, on thin stems, small white flowers, followed by red berries in summer. Grows in shade in well-drained soil. Drought tolerant, once established. Erect herb or shrub, branches and cladodes spirally...

Aspidistra elatior (LILIACEAE) Cast Iron Plant

Aspidistra elatior (LILIACEAE) Cast Iron Plant

A naturalised garden plant originally from China, named 'cast-iron plant' for its seeming ability to last forever in the most adverse conditions. Wide, lance shaped, dark green and leathery evergreen leaves rise up from tough, rhizomatous roots. A...

Baccharis halimifolia (ASTERACEAE) Groundsel

Baccharis halimifolia (ASTERACEAE) Groundsel

An upright shrub to 5 m with numerous branches forming a rounded or oval crown. It can form dense thickets in open areas. A declared plant (Class 2) in Queensland. Leaves are alternate, semi-evergreen, variable in shape, obovate to narrowly oblong, some...

Bergera koenigii (RUTACEAE) Curry Tree

Bergera koenigii (RUTACEAE) Curry Tree

Curry Tree is another emerging weed in the Enoggera catchment, not as serious as Mock Orange, but appearing in greater numbers every year. It is a small tree native to the Indian subcontinent, growing 4-6 m tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm diameter. The...

Bidens pilosa (ASTERACEAE) Cobbler’s pegs

Bidens pilosa (ASTERACEAE) Cobbler’s pegs

A cosmopolitan weed of tended areas (e.g., gardens, parks) especially closer to the coast throughout the warmer regions of the world. Native to tropical America. Mostly hairless and green to purplish stems are square in cross section (i.e., quadrangular)....

Brassica tournefortii (BRASSICACEAE) Wild Turnip, Sahara mustard

Brassica tournefortii (BRASSICACEAE) Wild Turnip, Sahara mustard

An annual herb to 90 cm with light yellow coloured flowers. The flowers have 4 petals followed by seed pods to 6 cm. The green, mainly basal leaves are pinnately lobed. In South Australia this weed evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 1996 and...

Brillantaisia lamium (ACANTHACEAE) Brillantasia

Brillantaisia lamium (ACANTHACEAE) Brillantasia

A coarse, branched herb between 20 cm and 2 m tall originally from Central and West Africa. Brillantaisia is an invasive weed in tropical Australia. If was thought that the subtropical climate of Brisbane was out of this plant's preferred range until...

Broussonetia papyrifera MORACEAE Paper Mulberry

Broussonetia papyrifera MORACEAE Paper Mulberry

A deciduous tree to 15 metres tall native to eastern Asia with large, pale-green, variably shaped leaves, lobed leaves more frequent on fast-growing young plants. Leaves have a rough surface above, are fuzzy-downy below and have a finely serrated margin....

Brugmansia suaveolens (SOLANACEAE) Angel’s Trumpets

Brugmansia suaveolens (SOLANACEAE) Angel’s Trumpets

Brugmansia suaveolens is a semi-woody shrub or small tree that gets to 5 m, usually with a many-branched single trunk. Native to south-east Brazil. All parts of this and other angel trumpets are highly toxic. Deaths have occurred. Weed risk high due to...

Bryophyllum sp (CRASSULACEAE) Mother-of-millions

Bryophyllum sp (CRASSULACEAE) Mother-of-millions

A fleshy (succulent) perennial with erect stems growing 30-120 cm tall, native to southern Africa. Introduced as an ornamental, now a widespread weed of untended areas such as waste ground, roadsides, pastures and spare allotments. The stems are rigid,...

Caesalpinia ferrea (CAESALPINACEAE) Leopard Tree

Caesalpinia ferrea (CAESALPINACEAE) Leopard Tree

Tree to 15 m from Brazil. A popular street tree until The Gap storm in 2008. The review of street trees following the storm saw it deleted from the list. This is a weed "to be expected" but not previously recorded as a problem. In surveys in 2007 we found...

Calliandra sp (FABACEAE) Red Powder Puff

Calliandra sp (FABACEAE) Red Powder Puff

Rambling shrub or small tree with branched pinnate, silky leaves and powder-puff-like balls of conspicuous dark crimson stamens (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998). Native of Bolivia, widely cultivated, propagates by seed. This specimen is possibly Calliandra...

Callisia fragrans (COMMELINACEAE) Basket Plant

Callisia fragrans (COMMELINACEAE) Basket Plant

Perennial herb with fleshy stems, up to 10 mm long, branched, with long stolons at base, native to Mexico, often cultivated as a hanging-basket plant. Leaves clustered toward the ends of the stem, scattered below, elliptic-lanceolate, 18-25 cm long, 4 cm...

Callisia repens (COMMELINACEAE) Creeping Inch Plant

Callisia repens (COMMELINACEAE) Creeping Inch Plant

Callisia from the Greek kallos meaning beauty and repens means spreading, creeping. Also known as Turtle Vine, Itsy Bitsy Inch Vine, Baby's Tears, Creeping Inch Plant and Creeping Basket Plant. It multiplies and spreads extremely quickly creating a mat of...

Calyptocarpus vialis (ASTERACEAE) Creeping Cinderella Weed

Calyptocarpus vialis (ASTERACEAE) Creeping Cinderella Weed

An annual herb with sprawling stems to 60 cm native to the southern parts of the USA and to Mexico. It has small bright yellow 'daisy' flowers. A common weed of tended areas such as gardens, parks and footpaths. The stems are thin and weak, tending to...

Canna indica (CANNACEAE) Canna, Indian Shot

Canna indica (CANNACEAE) Canna, Indian Shot

A large-leaved herb growing to 2 m tall and spreading by means of underground stems (rhizomes), native to South America, commonly found beside creeks and ponds and in other wet habitats. Sometimes also found in gardens and waste areas. Leaf blades are...

Cardiospermum grandiflorum (SAPINDACEAE) Balloon Vine

Cardiospermum grandiflorum (SAPINDACEAE) Balloon Vine

Native to the tropical areas of Asia, Africa, and America, Balloon vine is a major problem in the catchment. It can easily take over neglected and disturbed creek habitats and produce screens of foliage blocking out light needed by native plants. It spreads...

Cascabela thevetia (APOCYNACEAE) Yellow Oleander

Cascabela thevetia (APOCYNACEAE) Yellow Oleander

Spreading or erect poisonous shrub (with white latex) to 4 m. Previously known as Thevetia peruviana. Leaves alternate, whorled, simple, petiole 1–3 mm long. Leaf blade 93–150 mm long, 4–15 mm wide, base tapering, margins entire (or sinuate), apex acuminate...

Celtis sinensis (ULMACEAE) Chinese Elm

Celtis sinensis (ULMACEAE) Chinese Elm

Chinese Elm is a large tree (10 - 30 m tall) with smooth bark, crenate (scalloped) leaves and conspicuous dark orange fruit during summer. It is deciduous in winter in Brisbane. Probably the worst and most widespread of Brisbane's weed trees. Another like it...

Cestrum parqui (SOLANACEAE) Green Cestrum, Gatecrasher Weed

Cestrum parqui (SOLANACEAE) Green Cestrum, Gatecrasher Weed

A plant with a distinctive unpleasant odour. Yellow, woody roots. Yellow-green, tubular, very elongated flowers. A peristent weed along watercourses and in parks and gardens. Does not take over whole areas, but is poisonous, therefore high priority for...

Chionanthus ramiflora (OLEACEAE) Northern Olive

Chionanthus ramiflora (OLEACEAE) Northern Olive

This North Queensland plant is a new weed in Brisbane. It can be seen running rampant in the Sherwood Arboretum where it was planted and has produced great quantities of fruit. The fruit is attractive to birds and threatens to spread widely....

Chrysophyllum oliviforme (SAPOTACEAE) Satinleaf, Wild Star Apple

Chrysophyllum oliviforme (SAPOTACEAE) Satinleaf, Wild Star Apple

Chrysophyllum oliviforme is native to South Florida in the USA, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas and a number of Caribbean islands. Wild specimens have been found growing in the Enoggera catchment by Dr Sheldon Navie (Education Research Officer, CRC...

Cinnamomum camphora (LAURACEAE) Camphor Laurel

Cinnamomum camphora (LAURACEAE) Camphor Laurel

The Camphor Laurel tree has been harvested for centuries for its camphor. Camphor is contained in all parts of the tree and is potentially very toxic. Native to Taiwan, Japan and China, Camphor Laurel is a medium to large tree normally reaching a height of...

Cirsium vulgare (ASTERACEAE) Spearthistle, Scotch thistle

Cirsium vulgare (ASTERACEAE) Spearthistle, Scotch thistle

An annual or biennial large purple-flowered thistle with deeply lobed, prickly leaves each ending in a rigid spine native to Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. Spiny, sometimes hairless stems, sometimes covered with woolly hair. Leaves woolly...

Cleome hassleriana (CAPPARACEAE) Prickly spider-flower

Cleome hassleriana (CAPPARACEAE) Prickly spider-flower

Found growing on a moist creek edge. Floridata (www.floridata.com) says that Cleome hassleriana is a tender annual that grows up to 1.5 m with palmate leaves composed of 5 leaflets each 12.7-15 cm long. Flowers with long spidery stamens are held in cluster...

Colocasia esculenta (ARACEAE) Elephant’s Ears

Colocasia esculenta (ARACEAE) Elephant’s Ears

In some parts of the world this fast-growing wild taro is harvested for its potato-like tubers. Esculenta means edible. Weed risk: extreme. The plant is actually inedible if ingested raw because of needle-shaped raphides in the plant cells — severe...

Conyza bonariensis (ASTERACEAE) Flax-Leaved Fleabane

Conyza bonariensis (ASTERACEAE) Flax-Leaved Fleabane

Conyza or fleabanes are upright annuals from America. Flowers produced in summer on branched inflorescences form a terminal pyramid-shape. Also known as Hairy Fleabane, Asthmaweed, South American Horseweed, South American Conyza. Widespread weed, risk:...

Corymbia torelliana (MYRTACEAE) Cadaghi

Corymbia torelliana (MYRTACEAE) Cadaghi

Image: Juvenile A weed whose rate of invasion is increasing. Very successful coloniser of South-East Queensland bushland near habitation where it is grown as an ornamental. In South-East Queensland it is a serious pest, dominating areas where it has taken...

Crassocephalum crepidioides (ASTERACEAE) Thickhead

Crassocephalum crepidioides (ASTERACEAE) Thickhead

Thickhead is a weedy herb with nodding pinkish-orange or purplish cylindrical flower-heads. Leafy lobes are often present at the base of the leaf stalks near where the leaves join onto the stem. A native of Africa and Madagascar. Very common and widespread...

Crocosmia crocosmiiflora (IRIDACEAE) Emberglow, Montbretia

Crocosmia crocosmiiflora (IRIDACEAE) Emberglow, Montbretia

Crocosmia are perennial plants of the Iridaceae< family, which are plants with bullbs. This plant is not known to be naturalised. Weed risk: low. Wikipedia describes Iridaceae as follows: "Iridaceae is a family of plants in order Asparagales, taking its...

Crotalaria grahamiana (FABACEAE) Rattlepod

Crotalaria grahamiana (FABACEAE) Rattlepod

Native to India, Crotalaria grahamiana is a weed of urban creeks especially where farms were previously the land use. Crotalarias are one of many nitrogen fixing legumes used as green manure and in restoring low fertility soils. Not common in the catchment....

Crotalaria pallida var. obovata FABACEAE Streaked rattlepod

Crotalaria pallida var. obovata FABACEAE Streaked rattlepod

A short-lived herbaceous plant with upright stems to 2 m, native to Africa, India, China and south-eastern Asia, naturalised in coastal districts of south-eastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, along creek lines especially those that were in...

Ctenanthe spp (MARANTACEAE) Ctenanthe

Ctenanthe spp (MARANTACEAE) Ctenanthe

Several clumps of Ctenanthe (undetermined species) are well established, presumably originating from dumped garden waste, along Enoggera Creek. Weed risk medium, because although it is isolated, it forms monocultures. Also along the creek several clumps of...

Cuphea hyssopifolia (LYTHRACEAE) Mexican heather

Cuphea hyssopifolia (LYTHRACEAE) Mexican heather

Cuphea hyssopifolia Mexican heather is a plant in the Loosestrife family. It has been identified as naturalised by two specimens about 20 metres apart at Walton Bridge Reserve, just upstream from the new bridge, in the flood-prone area. A small tropical...

Cyperus eragrostis (CYPERACEAE) Nutsedge

Cyperus eragrostis (CYPERACEAE) Nutsedge

Common weed in seasonal creeks and other wet areas. Thrives in a disturbed plant community. Native to North and South America. It is a plant with a rhizome (rhizomatous) and triangular smooth, hairless stems 2-4 mm thick. Foliage is green, hairless,...

Cyperus involucratus (CYPERACEAE) Umbrella Sedge

Cyperus involucratus (CYPERACEAE) Umbrella Sedge

An escaped garden plant native to Africa still favoured in gardens throughout the catchment as an attractive ornamental. It has become a fast-growing weed infesting damp areas, particularly creeks. It has leaves which are reduced to sheaths and stems to 120...

Delonix regia (FABACEAE) Poinciana

Delonix regia (FABACEAE) Poinciana

Medium-sized deciduous tree from Madagascar widely planted across the world as an ornamental, a pest in some areas but not a serious weed yet, in Brisbane. Occasionally you see some germination in sensitive areas, but it is not a pest on the scale of...

Dietes bicolor (IRIDACEAE) Evergreen Iris, African Iris

Dietes bicolor (IRIDACEAE) Evergreen Iris, African Iris

Tough, fast-growing rhizomatous perennial. Wind and drought-resistance give it high weed potential. Foliage is strap-shaped and leathery. Branching stems bear a succession of individual flat short-lived iris-like flowers. The 3 larger petals each have a...

Dioscorea bulbifera (DIOSCOREACEAE) Aerial Yam, Air Potato

Dioscorea bulbifera (DIOSCOREACEAE) Aerial Yam, Air Potato

Introduced throughout the world as a food plant from East Africa despite the fact that wild varieties are toxic and sometimes fatal. A new weed to the Enoggera catchment. The tubers are globose or pear-shaped, sometimes lobed. Stems twine to the left...

Duranta erecta (VERBENACEAE) Duranta

Duranta erecta (VERBENACEAE) Duranta

An upright to drooping shrub that sometimes takes the form of a scrambling shrub or rarely a small tree. A native of Mexico, Central America, South America to Argentina, southern Florida (possibly naturalized), Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the West Indies...

Dyschoriste depressa (ACANTHACEAE) Dyschoriste

Dyschoriste depressa (ACANTHACEAE) Dyschoriste

Dyschoriste (pronounced Diss-KOR-iss-tee) is a perennial herb to 30 cm originally from the floodplains of southern Africa. Weed risk is extreme. It is tolerant to a wide range of climatic conditions. It has used its adaptability to full advantage in Brisbane...

Emilia sonchifolia (ASTERACEAE) Emilia

Emilia sonchifolia (ASTERACEAE) Emilia

An annual upright herb with an narrow thistle-like flower-heads similar to Crassocephalum crepidioides Thickhead except that it has definitely pink flowerheads and sessile leaves. A common weed of tended areas such as gardens, footpaths, roadsides and in...

Eranthemum pulchellum (ACANTHACEAE) Blue Sage

Eranthemum pulchellum (ACANTHACEAE) Blue Sage

Eranthemum pulchellum (syn. Eranthemum nervosum) is a long-flowering evergreen shrub native to India but widely naturalised in the tropics. Pronunciation: eer-RANTH-ee-mum pul-KEL-um. Newly naturalised in Enoggera catchment, several decent-sized populations...

Erigeron karvinskianus (ASTERACEAE) Mexican Daisy

Erigeron karvinskianus (ASTERACEAE) Mexican Daisy

Sprawling perennial herb usually forming dense clumps in rocky areas and disturbed locations in moderately wet areas. A common garden plant. Native to the neotropics, Mexico to Venezuela, Chile and the Antilles. Leaves linear to elliptic, entire to dentate...

Eriobotrya japonica (MALACEAE) Loquat

Eriobotrya japonica (MALACEAE) Loquat

A cold sensitive but otherwise hardy tree often grown in Brisbane backyards for the tart fruit. Has escaped into bushland and has become a vigorous weed. Not usually forming thickets, occasional plants come up well spaced apart, spread by birds. It is a...

Eugenia uniflora (MYRTACEAE) Brazilian cherry

Eugenia uniflora (MYRTACEAE) Brazilian cherry

Brazilian cherry is small tropical tree, indigenous to the Amazon rainforest with pointed ovate-lanceolate leaves. Young leaves coppery-pink. Leaves contain essential oils including citronella, cineole, terpenine, sesquiterpenes and others. Eugenia named...

Euphorbia heterophylla (EUPHORBIACEAE) Milkweed

Euphorbia heterophylla (EUPHORBIACEAE) Milkweed

An annual plant with an upright and branching stem native to tropical America. Stems and leaves exude a milky sap when broken. Has a poinsettia-like inflorescences. Main stems are 3-8 mm thick, growing upright to 80 cm. Leaves on petioles (0.5-4 cm) are...

Euphorbia pulcherrima (EUPHORBIACEAE) Poinsettia

Euphorbia pulcherrima (EUPHORBIACEAE) Poinsettia

A tall, rangy shrub to 3 m, native to the tropical areas of Central America and Mexico. A popular garden plant, Poinsettia is becoming naturalised along Enoggera waterways. Large, dark green, oval leaves are "toothed" on the sides and pointed at the tips....

Ficus elastica (MORACEAE) Rubber Tree

Ficus elastica (MORACEAE) Rubber Tree

A large, fast growing and hardy fig to 40 m from north-east India to Indonesia. Develops an irregular trunk with aerial and buttressing roots, thus spreading sideways as well as up. Broad shiny oval leaves 10-35 cm long. The leaves develop inside a sheath,...

Ficus pumila (MORACEAE) Creeping Fig

Ficus pumila (MORACEAE) Creeping Fig

Creeping Fig is an aggressive evergreen vine native to parts of East Asia, Japan, China and Vietnam. It is usually seen on built structures where it can climb vertical surface several stories tall with a network of fine stems densely covered with small...

Flacourtia jangomas (FLACOURTIACEAE) Indian cherry

Flacourtia jangomas (FLACOURTIACEAE) Indian cherry

Native to south-eastern Asia, possibly India, Flacourtia jangomas is a small tropical tree to 10 m with low branches, sharp spines on the trunk and pointed glossy leaves. Deciduous, trunk and branches usually thornless in old trees. Leaf blades (lamina)...

Fraxinus griffithii (OLEACEAE) Himalayan Ash, Evergreen ash

Fraxinus griffithii (OLEACEAE) Himalayan Ash, Evergreen ash

A quick growing, very hardy, drought tolerant, evergreen small tree to 15 m, starting to become more common in the Enoggera catchment. A new and emerging weed at the beginning of its naturalisation (early 2007). Has been used as a street tree in Brisbane....

Furcraea foetida (AGAVACEAE) Mauritius Hemp

Furcraea foetida (AGAVACEAE) Mauritius Hemp

A large, rosette succulent from northern South America, widely cultivated for fibre. Invasive throughout the Pacific Islands. In New Zealand, "naturalised garden escape; in semi-shade" (Healy & Edgar, 1980). The leaves are sword-shaped, 1-2 m long and 10-15...

Gamochaeta americanum (ASTERACEAE) Cudweed

Gamochaeta americanum (ASTERACEAE) Cudweed

Annual or short-lived perennial herb to 25 cm. Prefers damp, shady positions. Native to Central and South America. Forms a ring of leaves (basal rosette) then branched leafy stems. Leaves are white or silvery on the underside. The basal leaves are larger...

Gaura lindheimeri (ONAGRACEAE) Butterfly Bush, Clockweed

Gaura lindheimeri (ONAGRACEAE) Butterfly Bush, Clockweed

Gaura lindheimeri is a perennial herb with wand-like flowering stalks that grow about 1.5 m tall. Common in gardens and now escaping to become naturalised along watercourses and in waste areas. Native to southern North America. Class 5 weed in NSW. Weed...

Gloriosa superba (LILIACEAE) Glory Lily

Gloriosa superba (LILIACEAE) Glory Lily

A weed of sandy coastal areas, possibly found as far west as the Enoggera catchment. It was introduced as an ornamental and has escaped from gardens. Will grow on coastal headlands, suffocating other plants. Stems and leaves shiny, bright green upright at...

Gomphrena celosioides (AMARANTHACEAE) Gomphrena Weed

Gomphrena celosioides (AMARANTHACEAE) Gomphrena Weed

Gomphrena celosioides is an annual or perennial herb, sparsely branched, with white hairs, rostrate or sprawling, white flowers, prefers sandy soils. Originally from South America, it has spread rapidly. Usually a weed of lawns, parks, roadsides and...

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (ASTERACEAE) Senegal Tea

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (ASTERACEAE) Senegal Tea

Senegal Tea is a highly invasive aquatic weed. It is listed as a Class 1 weed under State legislation and is included on the Federal alert list for environmental weeds - non-native plants that threaten biodiversity and cause other environmental damage....

Hedera helix (ARALIACEAE) English Ivy

Hedera helix (ARALIACEAE) English Ivy

Common Ivy or English Ivy is reported as a weed south of Brisbane. Weed risk low, not common. English Ivy is a woody, evergreen climber to 20 m widely grown as an ornamental on walls and fences and as a ground cover. Leaves are glossy, dark green, leathery,...

Hedychium gardnerianum (ZINGIBERACEAE) Kahili ginger

Hedychium gardnerianum (ZINGIBERACEAE) Kahili ginger

A showy garden ginger native to India, this pest forms dense colonies, choking understorey and creek banks. Spreads by bird-dispersed seed and root fragments. This species has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders by the Global...

Hydrocleys nymphoides (LIMNOCHARITACEAE) Water Poppy

Hydrocleys nymphoides (LIMNOCHARITACEAE) Water Poppy

An aquatic native to Central and South America. Well known, but not common. Becoming more of a problem. Leaves similar to Frogbit Hydrocharis dubia. It is an escaped pond plant, creeping or floating stoloniferous, with floating or emergent leaves. Leaves...

Hygrophila polysperma (ACANTHACEAE) Indian swamp weed

Hygrophila polysperma (ACANTHACEAE) Indian swamp weed

East Indian Hygrophila polysperma is an extremely invasive weed growing above water and also below. It is a fast-growing and fast-spreading species that out shades and out competes other submersed plants. Most likely introduced through the aquarium trade....

Hylocereus undatus (CACTACEAE) Dragon Fruit

Hylocereus undatus (CACTACEAE) Dragon Fruit

A vining, terrestrial or epiphytic, cactus with fleshy stems to 7 m long in mature plants. Precise origin is unknown, most likely southern Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Costa Rica. It is cultivated for its fruit around the world in...

Hypoestes phyllostachya (ACANTHACEAE) Polka-dot Weed

Hypoestes phyllostachya (ACANTHACEAE) Polka-dot Weed

A small shrub often grown in gardens for its attractive leaves marked with pink dots. In the ten years to 2021, Polka-dot Weed has gone from potential weed to a serious threat to native vegetation in the Enoggera Catchment. It can form dense monocultures in...

Impatiens walleriana (BALSAMINACEAE) Impatiens

Impatiens walleriana (BALSAMINACEAE) Impatiens

This succulent herb is very common in moister areas, especially along urban creeks. It has been a popular garden plant throughout Brisbane in times gone by, not so popular now as even in gardens it soon becomes weedy and messy. Weed risk low, common but not...

Ipomoea alba (CONVOLVULACEAE) Moonflower

Ipomoea alba (CONVOLVULACEAE) Moonflower

Garden ornamental and was first recorded as naturalised in Queensland in 1985. Also known as Moonvine and Tropical White Morning Glory. Native to large parts of tropical America. Grows mainly along watercourses, in moist forests and in disturbed areas. Has...

Ipomoea cairica (CONVOLVULACEAE) Mile-a-minute

Ipomoea cairica (CONVOLVULACEAE) Mile-a-minute

This rampantly growing perennial climber is, along with its cousin Ipomoea indica, one of our worst climbing weeds. Now cosmopolitan (found everywhere) but probably originally from tropical Africa and Asia. Like Ipomoea indica, an established, high-risk...

Ipomoea indica (CONVOLVULACEAE) Morning Glory

Ipomoea indica (CONVOLVULACEAE) Morning Glory

This vine comes from tropical America and tropical Asia. It is seen growing to the top of the tree canopy and forming a dense blanket of foliage over all vegetation. It invades fragile creeklines growing rapidly to the canopy, blocking light, reducing...

Ipomoea quamoclit (CONVOLVULACEAE) Cypress Vine

Ipomoea quamoclit (CONVOLVULACEAE) Cypress Vine

A weed from Mexico, tropical Americas, up to 6 m or more in ideal conditions, divided leaves up to 7.5 cm. Leaves are ovate in general outline but deeply divided into many linear segments or lobes. Each segment is about 1 mm or less in width. The entire...

Jacaranda mimosifolia (BIGNONIACEAE) Jacaranda

Jacaranda mimosifolia (BIGNONIACEAE) Jacaranda

Many Brisbane people are reluctant to call this tree a weed though it certainly is. This is because of the lovely show of flowers each October, November, December which are particularly beautiful when scattered by evening storms across wet roads. Jacaranda...

Justicia carnea (ACANTHACEAE) Brazilian Plume Flower

Justicia carnea (ACANTHACEAE) Brazilian Plume Flower

An upright, evergreen shrub, 1-2 metres tall and wide, with large, 15 cm long, dark green leaves and upwardly-facing plumes of tubular, slightly fragrant flower clusters in rose-purple, red, yellow, orange, apricot, or white from early summer. Only one...

Justicia fulvicoma (ACANTHACEAE) Mexican Plume

Justicia fulvicoma (ACANTHACEAE) Mexican Plume

Not recorded yet in Enoggera catchment, but a risk, judging by its weedy behaviour observed by Sheldon Navie at the teaching gardens at University of Queensland. A low-growing, compact shrub with lush green foliage and unique spikes of reddish-orange...

Lantana camara (VERBENACEAE) Lantana, Common Lantana

Lantana camara (VERBENACEAE) Lantana, Common Lantana

A much-branched straggly, prickly shrub to 4 m commonly in dense thickets. Native to tropical South America. Can occasionally grow much higher through other vegetation, almost like a vine. Occurs along roadsides, creek banks, fence lines and in waste...

Lantana montevidensis (VERBENACEAE) Creeping Lantana

Lantana montevidensis (VERBENACEAE) Creeping Lantana

A perennial sprawling shrub with a creeping, weeping or trailing habit native to South America. Stems grow to about 1 m long. A weed of untended areas, replaces pasture species during times of prolonged drought. In Enoggera catchment, is widespread but not...

Leucaena leucocephala (FABACEAE) Leucaena

Leucaena leucocephala (FABACEAE) Leucaena

A shrub or small tree, extensively used in farming as a nitrogen-fixing fodder. Established stands of leucaena form dense thickets, hindering the movement of wildlife and excluding all other plants. Weed risk: extreme. Leaves are about 25 cm long and...

Ligustrum lucidim (OLEACEAE) Broad-leaf privet

Ligustrum lucidim (OLEACEAE) Broad-leaf privet

A shrub or tree growing up to 10 m tall native to China and Japan cultivated as a hedge or windbreak, now naturalised in and around rainforest areas. Stems and leaves are hairless. The leaves and fruit of all privet species are poisonous. The berries are a...

Ligustrum sinense (OLEACEAE) Small-leaved privet

Ligustrum sinense (OLEACEAE) Small-leaved privet

A semi-evergreen small tree or large shrub, commonly found invading the understorey of moist areas. Bark is a smooth gray with lenticels. An extremely hardy, aggressive plant often branching near the base into strong, multiple trunks. Hard to remove because...

Ludwigia longifolia (ONAGRACEAE) Longleaf Willow Primrose

Ludwigia longifolia (ONAGRACEAE) Longleaf Willow Primrose

Longleaf Willow Primrose is an aquatic plant that infests wetlands and slow moving waterways, native to South America (Argentina, Brazil). Plants are extremely invasive and can form dominant colonies that result in reduced biodiversity and habitat,...

Macfadyena unguis-cati (BIGNONIACEAE) Cat’s Claw Creeper

Macfadyena unguis-cati (BIGNONIACEAE) Cat’s Claw Creeper

Cat's Claw Creeper has been declared a Weed of National Significance. Native to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and tropical South America this climber is found in the coastal and sub-coastal areas of South-East Queensland and north-eastern New South...

Manihot grahamii (EUPHORBIACEAE) Ornamental Tapioca

Manihot grahamii (EUPHORBIACEAE) Ornamental Tapioca

Shrub or small tree, 2-5 m high, much-branched, mostly glabrous cultivated in warmer districts, occasionally naturalized. Native of tropical America. Leaves mostly 7-13-lobed, lobes cut almost to the base; lobes oblong, mostly 5-10 cm long, 10-20 mm wide,...

Medicago polymorpha (FABACEAE) Burr Medic

Medicago polymorpha (FABACEAE) Burr Medic

Medicago is a genus of about 50 species of annual and perennial herbs from Europe and Asia. Many species are cultivated as pasture legumes and several are naturalised. Widespread, weed risk low. Already present, but not too damaging. Burr medic has...

Millettia pinnata (FABACEAE) Indian Beech, Pongamia, Pongame

Millettia pinnata (FABACEAE) Indian Beech, Pongamia, Pongame

Millettia (previously Pongamia) pinnata is thought to have originated in India and is found throughout Asia. Not often naturalised, although propagates with alarming ease under the parent tree. This one may start popping up in warmer areas. Pongamia is a...

Morus alba (MORACEAE) Mulberry

Morus alba (MORACEAE) Mulberry

The mulberry tree, native to western Asia, has long been a Brisbane favourite in gardens for its fruit (pleasant tasting but often infested with fruit fly maggots when over-ripe) and its leaves (food plant for the silk-producing caterpillar). Weed risk...

Murraya paniculata ‘Exotica’ (RUTACEAE) Mock Orange

Murraya paniculata ‘Exotica’ (RUTACEAE) Mock Orange

Mock Orange is an emerging weed in the Enoggera catchment, threatening to become "the new Ochna". It is still widely used by landscapers and gardeners as a screening or hedging plant, despite its threat to local bushland. It is also suspected of causing...

Neonotonia wightii (FABACEAE) Glycine

Neonotonia wightii (FABACEAE) Glycine

This weed is another of our canopy killers. Among the worst weeds because of its toughness and drought hardiness. Introduced as a leguminous cattle fodder. Neonotonia wightii belongs to the subgenus Glycine, which is entirely African in origin. It is found...

Nephrolepis cordifolia (DAVALLIACEAE) Fishbone fern

Nephrolepis cordifolia (DAVALLIACEAE) Fishbone fern

There is a native form of this fern, but it is not the one you see growing aggressively almost everywhere. Although notionally same species, the Australian one is not invasive like the introduced Nephrolepis cordifolia thought to be a sub-species have been...

Ochna serrulata (OCHNACEAE) Ochna

Ochna serrulata (OCHNACEAE) Ochna

Native to Southern Africa, Ochna is an extremely hardy plant, capable of growing in harsh, dry conditions. It is difficult to kill, especially larger specimens. It can grow to 4 m in situations where it is supported by other plants, but mostly grows to about...

Odontonema tubaeforme (ACANTHACEAE) Fire Spike

Odontonema tubaeforme (ACANTHACEAE) Fire Spike

Shrub or shrub-like herb, up to 2 m tall native to Mexico and Panama. An emerging weed along Enoggera waterways probably naturalised because of dumping of garden waste, but could also be spreading by seed. Also known as Cardinal Flower, Odontonema, Red...

Opuntia monocantha (CACTACEAE) Drooping Prickly Pear

Opuntia monocantha (CACTACEAE) Drooping Prickly Pear

Shrubs or small trees up to 4 m tall, often with a definite trunk, native to south-eastern South America, often found in agricultural areas or on waste land. Flowers yellow with a reddish median stripe, inner perianth parts yellow to orange. Berries reddish...

Parthenium hysterophorus (ASTERACEAE) Parthenium Weed

Parthenium hysterophorus (ASTERACEAE) Parthenium Weed

Annual herb to 2 m in height native to Central and South America and the USA. Found along roadsides, disturbed sites. Initially forms a rosette. Lower leaves are up to 20 cm long and 12 cm wide and are deeply divided (pinnately dissected). The leaves on the...

Passiflora foetida (PASSIFLORACEAE) Stinking Passion Vine

Passiflora foetida (PASSIFLORACEAE) Stinking Passion Vine

A vine with a climbing and scrambling habit to 9 m. Produces tendrils for support from the bases of the leaves. Native to tropical America. A widespread weed in South-East Queensland especially on roadsides and disturbed sites in forests. Stems to 4 m long...

Passiflora suberosa (PASSIFLORACEAE) Corky Passion Vine

Passiflora suberosa (PASSIFLORACEAE) Corky Passion Vine

Native to tropical America, Corky Passion Vine is a climbing plant with tendrils for support. As the name suggests the stems become white and corky with age. The vine grows to about 6 m, variously hairless to hairy, Alternately arranged leaves are usually...

Passiflora subpeltata (PASSIFLORACEAE) White Passion Flower

Passiflora subpeltata (PASSIFLORACEAE) White Passion Flower

A fast-growing invader in most types of Enoggera habitat, this vine is very easy to recognise by the very large leaf-like stipules at the base of each leaf. Native range extends from Mexico through South America. Has naturalized in Hawaii, Australia and...

Pennisetum purpureum (POACEAE) Elephant Grass

Pennisetum purpureum (POACEAE) Elephant Grass

Elephant Grass is also called Cane Grass locally because of its similarity to sugar cane. This giant grass has invaded many open areas of Enoggera, Fish and Ithaca creeks. It is a fast grower, outcompeting local natives. It forms clumps which need to be cut...

Phyllostachys nigra (POACEAE) Black Bamboo

Phyllostachys nigra (POACEAE) Black Bamboo

Phyllostachys nigra is a declared plant in NSW. It is an invasive, running bamboo. The stems begin green and then darken to black with the passing weeks, while the leaves remain deep green. Reported to be less invasive than some others, but will form a...

Phytolacca octrandra (PHYTOLACCACEAE) Inkweed

Phytolacca octrandra (PHYTOLACCACEAE) Inkweed

An erect branching perennial herb, to about 1 m high, may be sprawling in shade or more compact in full sun. Has a large woody white taproot, all parts of the plant poisonous. Stems smooth and green or reddish. Leaves to 16 cm, oval with a pointed tip,...

Pinus elliottii (PINACEAE) Slash Pine

Pinus elliottii (PINACEAE) Slash Pine

A medium-sized tree with a narrowly ovoid crown capable of reaching over 30 m tall. Needles appear to be tufted at the ends of the branches. Twigs stout, orange-brown in color. Bark red-brown and furrowed when young, becoming very platy. The surfaces of the...

Pithecoctenium crucigerum (BIGNONIACEAE) Monkey’s Comb

Pithecoctenium crucigerum (BIGNONIACEAE) Monkey’s Comb

A semi-evergreen vine from southern Mexico south to Brazil with 3 soft leaflets with the middle often becoming a tendril that helps support the plant. This is a close relative of Cat's Claw. The common name Monkey's Comb comes from the spiny fruit which...

Plectranthus sp (LAMIACEAE) could be Plectranthus ciliatus

Plectranthus sp (LAMIACEAE) could be Plectranthus ciliatus

There are several native and introduced Plectranthus spp. in South-East Queensland. This one could be Plectranthus ciliatus. Plectranthus ciliatus is a pleasantly aromatic, trailing or straggling herb or shrub native to south-east Africa....

Plectranthus verticillatus (LAMIACEAE) a Plectranthus

Plectranthus verticillatus (LAMIACEAE) a Plectranthus

Pleasantly aromatic, soft, semi-succulent, perennial herb to around 25 cm, native of south-east Africa. Weed risk medium, emerging. Branches prostrate to ascending, rooting at nodes, more or less hairless to shortly and minutely hairy; hairs antrorse,...

Polygala paniculata (POLYGALACEAE) Island Snakeroot

Polygala paniculata (POLYGALACEAE) Island Snakeroot

A small, erect, glandular, annual herb up to 60 cm tall from tropical America. Often mistaken for a native. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to linear, to 2.5 cm long. White flowers in slender, terminal racemes. Roots with bubblegum-like odour. The Island Snakeroot...

Quisqualis indica (COMBRETACEAE) Rangoon Creeper, Drunken Sailor

Quisqualis indica (COMBRETACEAE) Rangoon Creeper, Drunken Sailor

A ligneous (woody) vine that can reach from 2.5 metres to up to 8 metres. Found in thickets or secondary forests of the Philippines, India and Malaysia. It has since been cultivated and naturalized in tropical areas, usually dispersed by water. One plant...

Raphiolepis indica (MALACEAE) Indian hawthorn

Raphiolepis indica (MALACEAE) Indian hawthorn

The deeply toothed leaf edges make the plant quite easy to identify even when it is not in flower. It invades in dry areas, proving quite hardy. It favours the same sort of ground that ochna also likes. "Indian" Hawthorn is misleading - the plant is native...

Richardia brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE) White eye, Mexican clover

Richardia brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE) White eye, Mexican clover

Native to South America, this weed prefers damp shady places, so can be quite a problem in rainforest. Cultivated as a garden ornamental. An annual herb with prostrate stems developing a long taproot native to tropical South America. A weed of footpaths,...

Ricinis communis (EUPHORBIACEAE) Castor oil plant

Ricinis communis (EUPHORBIACEAE) Castor oil plant

A perennial shrub with large leaves growing up to 4 m tall, a common weed of creek banks, neglected suburban blocks and other waste places. Not noxious in Queensland. It has been declared as a noxious species in New South Wales and the Northern Territory....

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (BRASSICACEAE) White Watercress

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (BRASSICACEAE) White Watercress

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (syn. Nasturtium officinale) is very common in Brisbane creeks. Found in disturbed wetlands, drains, seepages and creeks. Introduced from Europe, probably for its astringent leaves used in salads. Leaves are pinnate. Flowers are...

Rorippa palustris (BRASSICACEAE) Yellow Marsh-cress

Rorippa palustris (BRASSICACEAE) Yellow Marsh-cress

Yellow Cress is an annual or biennial herb native to Europe, considered cosmopolitan, i.e., native to just about everywhere. Stems erect, rarely prostrate or decumbent, usually single from the base, simple or branched upward, 3-12 cm long, glabrous or...

Ruellia squarrosa (ACANTHACEAE) Creeping Ruellia, Blue Shade

Ruellia squarrosa (ACANTHACEAE) Creeping Ruellia, Blue Shade

Creeping Ruellia grows very low to the ground and spreads more by underground runners than by seeds. This is a newly emerged and quite invasive weed — one to watch for. Leaves are wide, dark green, soft and fuzzy. Blooms in deep shade and does well even...

Rumex crispus (POLYGONACEAE) Curly Dock

Rumex crispus (POLYGONACEAE) Curly Dock

Taprooted perennial, developing a basal rosette of wavy-margined leaves and an unbranched stem to 1.5 m. Native to Europe, Asia and Africa. A widespread and common weed usually growing in damp soils which are not highly acidic. Stems are unbranched, thick,...

Sagittaria platyphylla (ALISMATACEAE) Sagittaria, Arrowhead

Sagittaria platyphylla (ALISMATACEAE) Sagittaria, Arrowhead

Sagittaria is a new weed from North America emerging in the Enoggera catchment and spreading rapidly. It has escaped from ponds, aquaria and other aquatic gardens, probably in many cases by dumping. It spreads by rhizomes, tubers, seed, tubers and entire...

Salvia coccinea (SALVINIACEAE) Red Salvia

Salvia coccinea (SALVINIACEAE) Red Salvia

Red Salvia, also known as Red Texas Sage, Scarlet Sage, Tropical Sage and Wild Salvia is a garden ornamental, originally from South Carolina to Florida and west to Texas and Central America, and in the West Indies. A subshrub perennial in warmer climates...

Salvia splendens (LAMIACEAE) Scarlet Sage, Tropical Sage

Salvia splendens (LAMIACEAE) Scarlet Sage, Tropical Sage

Salvia splendens is a herbaceous perennial plant native to Brazil. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, elliptical, up to 7 cm long and 5 cm broad, with a toothed margin. The flowers grow on erect spikes up from the centre of the plant in clusters of...

Salvinia molesta (SALVINIACEAE) Salvinia

Salvinia molesta (SALVINIACEAE) Salvinia

A free-floating freshwater fern with branching horizontal stems and short feathery ‘roots’ (actually modified leaves), forming mats of foliage on the water surface, native to south-eastern Brazil. Introduced for the aquarium industry it has become a serious...

Sambucus nigra (CAPRIFOLIACEAE) Elderberry

Sambucus nigra (CAPRIFOLIACEAE) Elderberry

Perennial shrub that forms a dense thicket. Plants can reach 4 m or more in height. Reproduces by seeds and horizontal stems that grow along the soil surface and root at the nodes. Native to North America. The stout stems have pith that is white, spongy,...

Sansevieria trifasciata (RUSCACEAE) Mother-in-law’s tongue

Sansevieria trifasciata (RUSCACEAE) Mother-in-law’s tongue

A fleshy succulent whose name refers to the triangular cross sections of the "tongues", native to Africa. Mature leaves are dark green with light gray-green banding to almost a metre in length. Very popular as an indoor plant as it requires almost no...

Schefflera actinophylla (ARALIACEAE) Umbrella tree

Schefflera actinophylla (ARALIACEAE) Umbrella tree

Native to North Queensland and New Guinea, more often an epiphyte in its natural habitat than it is in South-East Queensland where it was once a popular garden tree and pot plant. Problems with its invasive roots and its tendency to colonise rainforest have...

Scoparia dulcis (SCROPHULARIACEAE) Sweet Broom, Licorice Weed

Scoparia dulcis (SCROPHULARIACEAE) Sweet Broom, Licorice Weed

An erect annual herb to 50 cm with serrated leaves and small, white flowers from Tropical America. Used medicinally. Scoparia dulcis is a much branched, glabrous, leafy annual or under shrub with erect or ascending branches. Leaves opposite and 3-notely...

Senna pendula (CAESALPINIACEAE) Easter cassia

Senna pendula (CAESALPINIACEAE) Easter cassia

Easter Cassia Senna pendula var. glabrata is a native of South America. It invades moist hillsides, creekbanks and disturbed areas. Once favoured as a garden plant, it has become a pest in bushland. It is still commonly found in gardens throughout Brisbane,...

Senna septemtrionalis (CAESALPINACEAE) Arsenic Bush

Senna septemtrionalis (CAESALPINACEAE) Arsenic Bush

Arsenic Bush is a shrub or small tree to 3 m, native of Mexico. The leaves are compound with usually 3-4 and occasionally 5 pairs of leaflets. The outermost ones are larger. There is no terminal leaflet. Leaflets are paler on the underneath, relatively...

Setaria palmifolia (POACEAE) Palm Grass

Setaria palmifolia (POACEAE) Palm Grass

A native of India with palm-like foliage. Stems and leaves are covered in hairs that stick to your skin and cause urticaria (itchiness). It tolerates fairly low nutrients, acid conditions and some shade. The inflorescence is a greenish cylindrical spike...

Sida cordifolia (MALVACEAE) Flannel weed

Sida cordifolia (MALVACEAE) Flannel weed

A perennial herb or sub-shrub with erect, branching stems growing up to 1 m tall widespread in warmer regions. Develops a robust branching taproot up to 1 m long. A weed of gardens, footpaths, parks and untended areas. Stems and leaves are densely covered...

Sida rhombifolia (MALVACEAE) Arrowleaf Sida

Sida rhombifolia (MALVACEAE) Arrowleaf Sida

Arrowleaf Sida is native to the New World tropics and subtropics. Common names include Paddy’s Lucerne, Jelly leaf and also, somewhat confusingly, as Cuban Jute, Queensland Hemp, and Indian Hemp although it is not related to either Jute or Hemp. The stems...

Solanum abutiloides (SOLANACEAE) White Tobacco

Solanum abutiloides (SOLANACEAE) White Tobacco

Originally from Argentina and Bolivia, White Tobacco is a shrub 1-3 m tall, hairy, and strongly odorous. It has long petioles and large, wide heart-shaped leaves with smaller leaves in the leaf axils that look like stipules. Flowering parts are composed of a...

Solanum americanum (SOLANACEAE) Glossy nightshade

Solanum americanum (SOLANACEAE) Glossy nightshade

A cosmopolitan weed throughout the warmer regions of the world. Glossy nightshade is mostly an annual, sometimes a short-lived perennial herb. It grows upright, and the fruits are borne in a relatively upright position which distinguishes it from the...

Solanum chrysotrichum (SOLANACEAE) Giant devil’s fig

Solanum chrysotrichum (SOLANACEAE) Giant devil’s fig

An erect perennial shrub native to tropical Central America to 4 m found most commonly along creek banks but also in disturbed sites. This fast-growing woody weed can inflict nasty scratches with its sharp prickles. It comes up from seed on disturbed gound....

Solanum mauritianum (SOLANACEAE) Wild tobacco

Solanum mauritianum (SOLANACEAE) Wild tobacco

Solanum mauritianum is a small tree or shrub native to South America (Uruguay and south-eastern Brazil) and an invasive weed in some other places. Common names include woolly nightshade, earleaf nightshade, flannel weed, bugweed, tobacco weed, and kerosene...

Solanum seaforthianum (SOLANACEAE) Brazilian nightshade

Solanum seaforthianum (SOLANACEAE) Brazilian nightshade

A native of Brazil as the common name suggests, this aggressive climber is a garden escapee. It was grown (and may still be) in Brisbane and throughout warmer regions of the world for its attractive mauve-bue star-shaped flowers which develop into glossy...

Sonchus oleraceus (ASTERACEAE) Milk thistle, common sowthistle

Sonchus oleraceus (ASTERACEAE) Milk thistle, common sowthistle

Herbacious plant with hollow stems that exude a white sap if broken. Leaves are bluish-green in colour with irregularly toothed margins. Leaves at the base of the plant are bigger than those higher up. Leaf bases are extended to clasp the stem....

Spathodea campanulata (BIGNONIACEAE) African Tulip Tree

Spathodea campanulata (BIGNONIACEAE) African Tulip Tree

African Tulip Tree is a large, upright and spreading tree to 25 m. It has escaped from gardens and can now be seen along most creek banks in the Enoggera catchment. The thick branches are marked with lenticels (breathing pores). Young branches can have a...

Stachytarpheta australis (VERBENACEA) White Snakeweed

Stachytarpheta australis (VERBENACEA) White Snakeweed

Known also as Porterweed, White Snakeweed is native to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and South America to Peru and Argentina. It is widely naturalised in North Queensland and north-western parts of the Northern Territory and occasionally...

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (VERBENACEA) Dark-blue Snakeweed

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (VERBENACEA) Dark-blue Snakeweed

A coarse perennial herb from tropical America in the same family as Lantana. Usually 8-20 cm tall, sometimes woody toward base. Stems usually weakly erect. Leaves opposite, 4-8 cm long, upper surface rough, margins serrate. Tubed flowers usually dark...

Stephanophysum longifolium (ACANTHACEAE) Tropical Wild Petunia

Stephanophysum longifolium (ACANTHACEAE) Tropical Wild Petunia

Erect, perennial herb, or subshrub to 1 m high. Branches 4-angled, not hairy. This is a new and emerging weed becoming very widespread throughout Enoggera Creek. Widely cultivated as an ornamental plant throughout the tropics and as an indoor plant in...

Syngonium spp (ARACEAE) Arrowhead vine, Goosefoot, Nephthytis

Syngonium spp (ARACEAE) Arrowhead vine, Goosefoot, Nephthytis

Syngonium spp, or Arrowhead Vine, is a perennial vine native from Mexico to Panama. In the juvenile form, most of the leaves are sagittate (shaped like an arrowhead), to subhastate, to hastate (shaped like a spear head) in form. Leaves will reach up to 30...

Taraxacum officinale (ASTERACEAE) Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale (ASTERACEAE) Dandelion

A short-lived perennial herb which develops a rosette of leaves and a deep tap-root, native to Europe. A widespread and common weed of lawns, roadsides, neglected areas and sometimes pastures and cultivation. Leaves are somewhat saw-toothed in outline and...

Tecoma stans (BIGNONIACEAE) Tecoma, Yellow Bells

Tecoma stans (BIGNONIACEAE) Tecoma, Yellow Bells

Yellow Bells is a shrub or small tree reaching up to 5 m native to Central and South America. A fast-growing, fast-spreading weed of creeks and roadsides that colonises by means of wind-borne seeds. Leaves compound with up to 3 narrowly ovate to elongated...

Tecomaria capensis (BIGNONIACEAE) Cape Honeysuckle

Tecomaria capensis (BIGNONIACEAE) Cape Honeysuckle

Cape Honeysuckle is a sprawling, rampant, sometimes vine-like, shrub with evergreen, opposite, pinnately compound leaves. Throughout autumn and winter Cape Honeysuckle produces clusters of brilliant red-orange to scarlet tubular flowers. If left to...

Sphagneticola trilobata (ASTERACEAE) Singapore Daisy

Sphagneticola trilobata (ASTERACEAE) Singapore Daisy

A very bad weed along creeks, rapidly invades, somewhat resistant to glyphosate-based herbicides, becomes a dense monoculture. Very difficult to remove. Native to South America. Stems are rounded, sometimes hairy, sometimes reddish. The stems can trail...

Thunbergia alata (ACANTHACEAE) Black-eyed Susan

Thunbergia alata (ACANTHACEAE) Black-eyed Susan

Originally from South Africa, Black-eyed Susan escapes from Queensland and New South Wales gardens. It is a weed in several countries around the world. The name refers to the bright yellow-orange flowers, which have a contrasting black centre. Roots form at...

Tithonia diversifolia (ASTERACEAE) Japanese sunflower

Tithonia diversifolia (ASTERACEAE) Japanese sunflower

Japanese Sunflower is not a native of Japan or anywhere near it — it is in fact a native of Central America. It is a tall robust annual herb with erect stems forming bushes to 3 m high. Common along roadsides, creeks, embankments and neglected suburban...

Tradescantia fluminensis (COMMILENACEAE) Wandering Trad

Tradescantia fluminensis (COMMILENACEAE) Wandering Trad

Native to South America, Wandering Trad is a plant from the same family as the native Blue Commelina Commelina diffusa, and quite similar to it, except that it has glossy leaves and white flowers, whereas the native Blue Commelina has less glossy, lighter...

Tradescantia zebrina (COMMELINACEAE) Zebrina, Inch Plant

Tradescantia zebrina (COMMELINACEAE) Zebrina, Inch Plant

Native to Mexico, Zebrina is a minor problem in dry rainforest where it is easy to remove most infestations, but almost impossible to completely eradicate. It is a relatively succulent trailing herb in the same family as the native Commelina diffusa....

Trifolium repens (FABACEAE) White Clover

Trifolium repens (FABACEAE) White Clover

White clover is a member of the pea family, common and widespread as a weed of lawns and gardens, most prolific during winter. The compound leaves have three heart-shaped leaflets (thus the scientific name). They have a V-shaped light marking near the base...

Urena lobata (MALVACEAE) Caesarweed

Urena lobata (MALVACEAE) Caesarweed

A pantropical weed, it probably evolved somewhere in Asia. Lobed leaves are covered in stellate trichomes (star-shaped plant hairs) which give the leaves a greyish color and raspy feel. Frequently found in pastures and rangelands – it is often a monoculture...