PLANTS TO PLANT

SOWN aims to rehabilitate the waterways of the Enoggera Catchment and the surrounding riverine bushland by propagating trees, shrubs and other plants that are native to the catchment and making these available to members and local bushcare groups. The plants listed below are the ‘Plants to Plant’. The plants listed below are not always available at the SOWN nursery. Check the Nursery December 2020 Stocktake for plants. SOWN_Nursery_Stocktake_20201215

Database of Enoggera Catchment Plants

The list below is a searchable database of plants of the Enoggera Catchment. For each plant, it includes: habit and descriptions; photographs of leaves, flowers and fruit; and notes on distribution, garden use, and propagation. You can search by keywords.

The main reference used for plant names and habit details in this database is “Mangroves to Mountains: A Field Guide to the Native Plants of South-east Queensland’ (2014 Revised Edition) by Glenn Leiper, Jan Glazebrook, Denis Cox and Kerry Rathie.

 

Abrophyllum ornans (CARPODETACEAE) Native Hydrangea

Abrophyllum ornans (CARPODETACEAE) Native Hydrangea

Small tree to 8 m along watercourses in rainforests in Queensland and New South Wales. Leaves are alternate and irregularly toothed and 10-20 cm long. Small, greenish yellow and white flowers in clusters in spring and summer. Fruit are small, black, fleshy...

Abutilon oxycarpum (MALVACEAE) Small-leaved Abutilon

Abutilon oxycarpum (MALVACEAE) Small-leaved Abutilon

Shrub to 2 m, often soft with velvety leaves and weak stems on rocky slopes creek banks and sometimes in rainforest. Found throughout Australia though possibly rare and threatened in Victoria. Also known as Small-flowered Abutilon, Straggly...

Acacia bakeri (MIMOSACEAE) Marblewood, Baker’s Wattle

Acacia bakeri (MIMOSACEAE) Marblewood, Baker’s Wattle

Erect or spreading tree to 30 m, north from Mullumbimby area in wet sclerophyll eucalypt forest and rainforest. Rare, threatened, vulnerable in the wild. Referred to as the rainforest acacia. Bark finely fissured or sometimes smooth. Phyllodes elliptic to...

Acacia complanata (MIMOSACEAE) Flat-stemmed Wattle

Acacia complanata (MIMOSACEAE) Flat-stemmed Wattle

Arching shrub or small tree to 5 m. Erect or spreading, in dry sclerophyll forest, woodland and heath, in sandy and gravelly soil from Coffs Harbour to Bundaberg. The name refers to the branchlets, which when young are flattened and more or less zigzagged...

Acacia concurrens (MIMOSACEAE) Black Wattle, Curracabah

Acacia concurrens (MIMOSACEAE) Black Wattle, Curracabah

Dense shrub or small tree to 8 m on sandy or stony soils in open forest. Found in understorey over most of South-East Queensland and surrounding regions including NSW. Will usually be smaller than 8 m and quite common in regrowth of disturbed coastal areas,...

Acacia disparrima (MIMOSACEAE) Hickory Wattle

Acacia disparrima (MIMOSACEAE) Hickory Wattle

Dense tree to 15 m. Mostly in coastal areas and fringes throughout Queensland and NSW. Branchlets slender with the uppermost few cm angled. Phyllodes somewhat curved, pale grey to blue green with numerous parallel veins, pointed tip. Greenish phyllode stalk...

Acacia falcata (MIMOSACEAE) Sickle-leaved Wattle

Acacia falcata (MIMOSACEAE) Sickle-leaved Wattle

Erect, tree-like shrub to 4 m throughout Queensland and NSW mostly in coastal areas. Curved (falcate) phyllodes with a prominent mid vein. Flowers are cream coloured ball-flowers in early winter. Unusual seed pods show the seeds very obviously....

Acacia fimbriata (MIMOSACEAE) Brisbane Wattle, Fringed Wattle

Acacia fimbriata (MIMOSACEAE) Brisbane Wattle, Fringed Wattle

Fast growing, profusely flowering wattle native to South-East Queensland and Northern NSW. Good screen plant, gap filler. Hardy in most situations. Usually a bushy shrub or small tree to 4-6 m high with attractive, weeping light green foliage. New growth is...

Acacia irrorata (MIMOSACEAE) Green Wattle, Blueskin

Acacia irrorata (MIMOSACEAE) Green Wattle, Blueskin

Small tree to 5-10 m in the warmer, humid areas in the coastal belt from South-East Queensland to southern New South Wales. Extends inland to the NSW tablelands. Grows on heavier soils. Best growth is in moist, well-drained, relatively fertile flats along...

Acacia maidenii (MIMOSACEAE) Maiden’s Wattle

Acacia maidenii (MIMOSACEAE) Maiden’s Wattle

A medium tree to 15 m on fertile, well-drained soils. Phyllodes are dark green, alternate to 18 cm. Creamy-yellowish flower spikes to 6 cm in summer and autumn. Host plant for many butterflies, including the Tailed Emperor Polyura sempronius and the Large...

Acacia melanoxylon (MIMOSACEAE) Blackwood

Acacia melanoxylon (MIMOSACEAE) Blackwood

Medium to large tree recorded as capable of growing to 45 m but more often in the 10-20 m range at maturity in the Enoggera catchment. Grows from North Queensland (Atherton Tablelands) to Tasmania. Larger trees have been milled for their reddish-brown to...

Acacia penninervis (MIMOSACEAE) Mountain Hickory Wattle

Acacia penninervis (MIMOSACEAE) Mountain Hickory Wattle

Erect or spreading shrub or small tree to 8 m. From Blackdown Tableland, South-East Queensland, through eastern NSW and ACT to eastern Victoria, with a western outlier near Longwood, Victoria. Phyllodes oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic, straight to...

Acacia perangusta (MIMOSACEAE) Eprapah Wattle

Acacia perangusta (MIMOSACEAE) Eprapah Wattle

Small tree or shrub to about 6 m. Branches can be angular and flattened but not hairy. In the greater Brisbane region found on gravelly and sandy soils, sandstone ridges and along creek banks with alluvial soils in woodland or open forest communities where...

Acacia ulicifolia (MIMOSACEAE) Prickly Moses, Juniper Wattle

Acacia ulicifolia (MIMOSACEAE) Prickly Moses, Juniper Wattle

A small, prickly shrub to 2 m in sandy heaths, open forests and woodlands. Generally in open and drier areas on light soils throughout Australia's east coast. Phyllodes to 2 cm, dark green, spiny. Very prickly, as the name suggests. Will provide useful...

Acalypha nemorum (EUPHORBIACEAE) Hairy Acalypha

Acalypha nemorum (EUPHORBIACEAE) Hairy Acalypha

A small herb-like open shrub to 2.5 m in rainforest margins. There is a prostrate form in coastal areas. Leaves are ovate (egg shaped) to lanceolate (drawn out oval) and can be quite large and soft on this small plant. Both surfaces usually densely hairy...

Acmena ingens (MYRTACEAE) Red Apple

Acmena ingens (MYRTACEAE) Red Apple

Medium to tall dense tree to 30 m. Smooth to flaky bark; young branchlets reddish. From northern NSW to Gympie on basalt and higher fertility soils. Features a large spreading crown, the trunk in older specimens can be buttressed. Acmena ingenues is found on...

Acmena smithii (MYRTACEAE) Lilly Pilly

Acmena smithii (MYRTACEAE) Lilly Pilly

A small to medium tree to 20 m. Grows on most soils in sub tropical rainforest, often along watercourses, throughout Queensland, Victoria and NSW. Also known as Syzygium smithii. Bushy dark green foliage tree with pinky bronze new growth. Leaves are opposite...

Acronychia laevis (RUTACEAE) Glossy Achronychia, Hard Aspen

Acronychia laevis (RUTACEAE) Glossy Achronychia, Hard Aspen

Small tree to 10 m along watercourses. Common in subtropical and dry rainforest and rainforest margins. Image shows a group of the characteristically shaped and coloured fruit – some of these are not quite mature. Acronychia from Greek akros at the farthest...

Acronychia oblongifolia (RUTACEAE) White Achronychia, Yellow Wood

Acronychia oblongifolia (RUTACEAE) White Achronychia, Yellow Wood

Grows to 15 metres along watercourses. Has attractive foliage and edible white fruit (tastes like lemon rind). Found from northern Victoria to southern Queensland in temperate coastal regions and subtropical shorelines with natural rainfall greater than 600...

Adiantum formosum (ADIANTACEAE) Giant Maidenhair Fern

Adiantum formosum (ADIANTACEAE) Giant Maidenhair Fern

Colony forming fern of rainforests and watercourses with erect fronds to 1 m. Very attractive fern in most types of rainforest, delicate in appearance but tough and hardy if it has moisture. Grows in colonies in rainforest or open forest, or on alluvial...

Adiantum hispidulum (ADIANTACEAE) Rough Maidenhair Fern

Adiantum hispidulum (ADIANTACEAE) Rough Maidenhair Fern

Clumping fern of rainforests, watercourses and shady eucalypt areas. Fronds will grow to over 30 cm tall. Widespread fern in both rainforest and eucalypt areas in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and the Northern Territory. Also occurs outside of...

Ailanthus triphysa (SIMAROUBACEAE) White Bean, White Sirus

Ailanthus triphysa (SIMAROUBACEAE) White Bean, White Sirus

Fast-growing single-stemmed pioneer tree to 30 m in dry, littoral and subtropical rainforest north from Iluka NSW. Large compound leaves of up to 60 leaflets asymmetrical at the base. A. triphysa is dioecious, with male and female flowers being borne on...

Ajuga australis (LAMIACEAE) Australian Bugle

Ajuga australis (LAMIACEAE) Australian Bugle

A hairy, perennial herb to 30 cm. Has a basal rosette of velvety, toothed leaves and soft, erect stems. Found in a range of soils and habitats from coastal forests to the dry, mallee country. Leaves decrease in size towards the flowers spikes. Flowers are...

Alchornea ilicifolia (EUPHORBIACEAE) Native Holly

Alchornea ilicifolia (EUPHORBIACEAE) Native Holly

Shrub or small tree to 6 m high in drier rainforest, on watercourses and on the boundary of open forest. Separate male and female plants. From the coast to the escarpment ranges; north from the Illawarra region NSW. Not found in the very driest of scrubs. In...

Alectryon subcinereus (SAPINDACEAE) Wild Quince

Alectryon subcinereus (SAPINDACEAE) Wild Quince

Shrub or small tree to 15 m, flattened ribbed, branchlets in subtropical and dry rainforest throughout Queensland and NSW. Leaves are compound with mostly 6 leaflets, sometimes fewer. The leaves are alternate but the leaflets are opposite. Virtually no...

Alectryon tomentosus (SAPINDACEAE) Hairy Alectryon

Alectryon tomentosus (SAPINDACEAE) Hairy Alectryon

A common small tree to 15 m in all types of rainforest. The large seeds are carried by birds, but mostly propagate in the vicinity of a large specimen. The adult trees do not supress germination. Young trees can be quite thick around the adults. A very hardy...

Alocasia brisbanensis (ARACEAE) Cunjevoi

Alocasia brisbanensis (ARACEAE) Cunjevoi

A large lily-like herb to 1.8 m. Cunjevoi is common in most rainforests and moist areas. Grows on rainforest margins and as an understorey herb. Chiefly in coastal rainforest districts, north from the Illawarra region of NSW, inland to Dorrigo and throughout...

Alphitonia excelsa (RHAMNACEAE) Red Ash, Soap Tree

Alphitonia excelsa (RHAMNACEAE) Red Ash, Soap Tree

A small to medium tree to 18 m in open forest and in the transition zone between dry rainforest remnants and eucalypt forest. A early coloniser of disturbed dry rainforest and a fast-growing, good pioneer species. The undersurface of the leaf blade is...

Alpinia caerulea (ZINGIBERACEAE) Native Ginger, Blue Berry Ginger

Alpinia caerulea (ZINGIBERACEAE) Native Ginger, Blue Berry Ginger

A multi-stemmed, clumping herb with upright arching stems to 3 m. Common in subtropical rainforests in Queensland and NSW. Long fleshy green simple, alternate, glossy green and broadly elliptical leaves up to 40 cm long. Globose dark blue fruit to 10 mm. The...

Alternanthera denticulata (AMARANTHACEAE) Lesser Joyweed

Alternanthera denticulata (AMARANTHACEAE) Lesser Joyweed

A scrambling, prostrate, perennial herb found in damp grasslands, paper bark forest, boulder gaps and waterway margins. It has a slender but tough taproot and many branches that arise from ground level. The branches either spread along the ground or slope...

Alyxia ruscifolia (APOCYNACEAE) Chain Fruit

Alyxia ruscifolia (APOCYNACEAE) Chain Fruit

Shrub to 2.5 m in most types of rainforest sometimes in sclerophyll forest north from Wollongong, NSW. Leaves opposite in whorls of 3-6, narrow-lanceolate to broad-ovate, smooth, leathery, glossy, margins slightly recurved. Flowers white, fragrant, in...

Amylotheca dictyophleba (LORANTHACEAE) Brush Mistletoe

Amylotheca dictyophleba (LORANTHACEAE) Brush Mistletoe

Spreading to hanging shrub parasitic on many species of rainforest trees north from the Illawarra region of NSW with external runners, older stems with corky bark. Attachment and contact with the host plant by haustoria (root-like structure which penetrates...

Angophora subvelutina (MYRTACEAE) Broad-leaved Apple

Angophora subvelutina (MYRTACEAE) Broad-leaved Apple

Tree to 20 m, often less. Dark grey, flaky, brittle bark, sometimes similar to bloodwoods or stringybarks. Leaves opposite whitish blue grey to bright green, sessile (attached to branch without petioles). New growth with scattered long reddish hairs and...

Anthocarapa nitidula (MELIACEAE) Incense Cedar

Anthocarapa nitidula (MELIACEAE) Incense Cedar

Medium to large targe tree to 25 m in subtropical rainforest, north from Woodburn on the Richmond River in NSW. Branchlets green, sometimes with brown lenticels (breathing pores). No domatia, obvious leaf scars, rachis tip not extended. Leaves are...

Aphanopetalum resinosum (CUNONIACEAE) Gum Vine

Aphanopetalum resinosum (CUNONIACEAE) Gum Vine

A twining climber found in subtropical and dry rainforest in Queensland and New South Wales. A member of the Cunoniaceae, a family of mostly trees and shrubs. Opposite leaves are a dark glossy green, ovate to lanceolate with bluntly toothed margins. Stems...

Araucaria bidwillii (ARAUCARIACEAE) Bunya Pine

Araucaria bidwillii (ARAUCARIACEAE) Bunya Pine

The Bunya Pine is a large tree to 40 m, with a straight, rough-barked trunk, and a very distinctive symmetrical, dome-shaped crown. This is a contentious plant for inclusion in the Enoggera species list. It is unlikely to be a native to Enoggera catchment,...

Araucaria cunninghamii (ARAUCARIACEAE) Hoop Pine

Araucaria cunninghamii (ARAUCARIACEAE) Hoop Pine

Large symmetrical pine tree to 50 m tall from Macleay River in NSW to North Queensland and New Guinea in most types of rainforest. Usually a single trunk to the tip of the tree. Often seen as an emergent in dry rainforest, also as a remnant in cleared or...

Argyrodendron trifoliolatum (STERCULIACEAE) White Booyong

Argyrodendron trifoliolatum (STERCULIACEAE) White Booyong

  Large tree to 40 metres, in subtropical and dry rainforests in Queensland, NSW, New Guinea. Leaves trifoliolate, hence the name, dark green above and silvery grey-green to brown underneath due to a scurf of miniature wheel like scales. Pronounced...

Arundinella nepalensis (POACAE) Reedgrass, River Grass

Arundinella nepalensis (POACAE) Reedgrass, River Grass

Tufted perennial with erect, cane-like clumps to 3 m high in dry woodland and grassland, often in drainage ways. Rhizomatous. Leaves with ligule short, densely hairy. Blade rolled in bud, 3-10 mm wide. Inflorescence a panicle 10-40 cm long. Arundinella...

Arytera foveolata (SAPINDACEAE) Pitted Coogera

Arytera foveolata (SAPINDACEAE) Pitted Coogera

Usually a shrubby tree to 5-8 m, sometimes taller common in dry rainforest. Leaves are compound, alternate with 4-6 pinnate leaflets. Leaflets dark green with a leathery texture often toothed towards the tip. Flowers small, rusty cream from leaf axils from...

Astrotricha latifolia (ARALIACEAE) Broad-leaf Star Hair

Astrotricha latifolia (ARALIACEAE) Broad-leaf Star Hair

Large shrub mostly around 3 m high, sometimes taller, usually with many spreading to ascending branches, in wet sclerophyll forest or rainforest margins chiefly on the coast and ranges. Occurs along creeklines in Mt Coot-tha Forest Park. The name means...

Austromyrtus dulcis (MYRTACEAE) Midjim

Austromyrtus dulcis (MYRTACEAE) Midjim

If there was ever a plant in the Enoggera species list which isn't reliably known to be here, this is one. A popular bush tucker plant, Midjim grows well in exposed coastal areas, especially the Bay Islands. It can be seen growing wild on Cylinder Headland,...

Austrosteenisia blackii (FABACEAE) Blood Vine

Austrosteenisia blackii (FABACEAE) Blood Vine

A vigorous creeper with dense foliage. The stems become very stout and woody. Dark-red sap exudes from cut stems, hence the common name. Dark-red pea-like flowers borne on arching panicles from September to December. Papery fruits up to 12 cm long with...

Backhousia myrtifolia (MYRTACEAE) Grey Myrtle

Backhousia myrtifolia (MYRTACEAE) Grey Myrtle

Very common riparian species on dry banks but rarely planted, probably because of the difficulty of obtaining seed. Can to be hard to establish, susceptible to drying out when young, though becomes very drought hardy when mature. Small tree to 7 m tall,...

Baloghia inophylla (EUPHORBIACEAE) Scub Bloodwood

Baloghia inophylla (EUPHORBIACEAE) Scub Bloodwood

Medium tree to 15 metres or dense shrub widespread in all types of warmer rainforest; north from Tilba Tilba NSW including Melanesia. Bark exudes a clear sap which turns red. Due to this resin, it will burn when green, unusual for a rainforest tree. Leaves...

Banksia integrifolia (PROTEACEAE) Coastal Banksia

Banksia integrifolia (PROTEACEAE) Coastal Banksia

Banksia integrifolia is thought of as a coastal plant, but it occurs between Victoria and Central Queensland in a broad range of habitats, from coastal dunes to mountains. It is recorded from D'Aguilar National Park - Southern. It is highly variable in form,...

Bothriochloa bladhii (POACEAE) Forest Bluegrass

Bothriochloa bladhii (POACEAE) Forest Bluegrass

Widespread perennial grass to 1 m in woodland on better soils, native to Africa, India, Australia and the Pacific. Fairly drought tolerant. Leaves strongly aromatic when crushed, smelling and tasting like turpentine. In Queensland it seeds from December to...

Brachychiton acerifolious (STERCULIACEAE) Flame Tree

Brachychiton acerifolious (STERCULIACEAE) Flame Tree

This tree is widely planted in gardens and in bushcare sites, but is not strictly speaking an Enoggera species, not being recorded in D'Aguilar National Park, but its range is neverthless coastal rainforests from central New South Wales to far north...

Brachychiton discolor (STERCULIACEAE) Lacebark Tree

Brachychiton discolor (STERCULIACEAE) Lacebark Tree

Medium-sized tree in rainforest from central New South Wales to southern Queensland. Common in dry rainforest, especially on well-drained slopes and in association with Hoop pine Araucaria cunninghamii. Leaves are about 100 to 150 mm long and deeply lobed....

Breynia oblongifolia (EUPHORBIACEAE) Coffee Bush

Breynia oblongifolia (EUPHORBIACEAE) Coffee Bush

A very important and hardy undergrowth shrub in Enoggera catchment bush regeneration. Shrub to about 3 metres common over much of Queensland in most kinds of country. Leaves are soft, elliptical (oblong) to 2 cm. The appearance of the leaves is strongly...

Bridelia exaltata (PHYLLANTHACEAE) Brush Ironbark

Bridelia exaltata (PHYLLANTHACEAE) Brush Ironbark

Small to large tree with bark dark brown and coarsely fissured; glabrous. Leaves ovate to oblong, to 12 cm, margins entire, undulate, upper surface dark green, lower surface pale greyish green, secondary veins prominent on both surfaces; petiole 3-5 mm long,...

Bursaria spinosa (PITTOSPORACEA) Blackthorn

Bursaria spinosa (PITTOSPORACEA) Blackthorn

Bursaria spinosa is an erect, prickly shrub to about 3-4 metres tall, widespread in open forest and woodland in coastal Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. The leaves are an elongated oval shape 20-45 mm long and up to 12 mm...

Caesalpinia scortechinii (CAESALPINIACEAE) Large Prickle-vine

Caesalpinia scortechinii (CAESALPINIACEAE) Large Prickle-vine

Vigorous woody climber or scrambler with stems to 12 metres, found on the margins of rainforest and along the banks of streams, especially in rocky areas, from north-east NSW to north-east Queensland; endemic to Australia. There are some weedy exotics also...

Calamus muelleri (ARECACEAE) Lawyer Vine, Wait-a-while

Calamus muelleri (ARECACEAE) Lawyer Vine, Wait-a-while

Vigorous climbing palm with hooked whips, pinnate leaves with to 50 cm with up to 12 linear to lanceolate leaflets. The compound leaves are alternate on the stems. The leaflets, stalks and midribs have small prickles. Stiff backward-facing hooks on the...

Callerya megasperma (FABACEAE) Native Wisteria

Callerya megasperma (FABACEAE) Native Wisteria

Formerly Millettia megasperma. Tall, woody, robust, bushy climber (vine) with woody stems. Climbs via twining stems with additional support from large pinnate leaves. Will ascend into the rainforest canopy, found in rainforest, rainforest margins and wet...

Callicarpa pedunculata (VERBENACEAE) Velvet Leaf

Callicarpa pedunculata (VERBENACEAE) Velvet Leaf

A tall open shrub with tiny pink flower clusters along the stems, mostly 3-4 m high, sparsely to densely hairy, in and near subtropical rainforest; north from Port Macquarie. Joseph Banks and his party saw this species at the Endeavour River in Far North...

Calochlaena dubia (DICKSONIACEAE) False Bracken

Calochlaena dubia (DICKSONIACEAE) False Bracken

Also known as Common Ground Fern, Soft Bracken and Rainbow Fern, until recently False Bracken was known as Culcita dubia. Widespread in tall open forest, usually on poorer soils. Rhizome usually stout, covered with soft, silky, pale and dark brown hairs....

Carex appressa (CYPERACEAE) Carex, Tall Sedge

Carex appressa (CYPERACEAE) Carex, Tall Sedge

A slowly spreading tussock plant with brown flowerheads in spring and summer. Grows well in boggy positions, in swamps, beside streams and in shallow ponds in full sun. Host plant for the Evening Brown Melanitis leda and Spotted Sedge-skipper Hesperilla...

Carex polyantha (CYPERACEAE) Creek Carex

Carex polyantha (CYPERACEAE) Creek Carex

Tufted sedge to 60 cm grows in swamps and on creek banks. Clumping grass to 1 m with arching deep green blades. Creates a good low maintenance cover especially for moist or boggy areas. Attracts seed-eating birds. Sun, semi-shade. Interchangeable with a...

Carissa ovata (APOCYNANCEAE) Currant Bush, Kunkerberry

Carissa ovata (APOCYNANCEAE) Currant Bush, Kunkerberry

A sparse shrub to 3 m with thorny stems in dry and subtropical rainforest, eucalypt and brigalow. Milky sap in branchlets and leaves. Hardy. Attracts birds and butterflies. Thickets provide good small bird habitat. Found growing in dry rainforest remnants in...

Castanospermum australe (FABACEAE) Black Bean

Castanospermum australe (FABACEAE) Black Bean

Large tree to 40 m, often occurs in stands. Black Bean grows well along the banks of rivers and creeks. It has a strong root system, which can be used to consolidate stream banks against erosion. In the garden it rarely grows more than 20 m with a dense...

Casuarina cunninghamiana (CASUARINACEAE) River She-oak

Casuarina cunninghamiana (CASUARINACEAE) River She-oak

Tall, graceful tree to 20 m along creek and river banks and floodplains. Has fine pine-like foliage and deeply fissured bark. Important tree along Enoggera Creek. Casuarina was the sole genus in the family, but has been split into three more genera, a...

Cayratia clematidea (VITACEAE) Slender Grape, Native Grapefruit

Cayratia clematidea (VITACEAE) Slender Grape, Native Grapefruit

Weak, soft but vigorous climber to around 2 m, sometimes longer, common along creek banks. Fast growing, can smother young plantings, but easy to trim back until the planting is established. Striate stems. Climbs by means of tendrils. The underground part of...

Celastrus subspicatus (CELASTRACEAE) Large-leaved Staff Vine

Celastrus subspicatus (CELASTRACEAE) Large-leaved Staff Vine

A woody vine growing into the canopy, widely distributed in subtropical and dry rainforest. Alternate leaves with faintly toothed margins. Greenish small flower (to 5 mm) on hairy, terminal panicles followed by yellow-orange fruit in leathery capsule to 9 mm...

Choricarpia leptopetala (MYRTACEAE) Brown Myrtle

Choricarpia leptopetala (MYRTACEAE) Brown Myrtle

Small tree to 15 m but more often seen as a bushy shrub or thicket to 10 m with crooked trunks, often layering, from south of Sydney to Brisbane. It is often so thick as to appear coppiced (multitrunked after main trunk removed). A vigorous, hardy tree...

Christella dentata (THELYPTERIDACEAE) Binung Fern

Christella dentata (THELYPTERIDACEAE) Binung Fern

A tufting fern to 1 m. Usually found growing along stream banks, on rainforest margins or in open forest. Very fast growing and suitable for cultivation in moist, shady areas. Regenerates strongly. Can be encouraged to suppress weeds by covering and area....

Cissus antarctica (VITACEAE) Native Grape, Kangaroo Vine

Cissus antarctica (VITACEAE) Native Grape, Kangaroo Vine

Robust and vigorous woody, climbing vine found in the rainforests of Queensland and NSW. Alternate, simple tough grey-green or dark green leaves with serrated margins. Leaves are felty and rust coloured underneath. All leaves are opposed by tendrils or...

Cissus opaca (VITACEAE) Pepper Vine, Small-leaf Grape

Cissus opaca (VITACEAE) Pepper Vine, Small-leaf Grape

Weak to medium climber with stems to about 6 m, the roots bearing fleshy, underground tubers to about 25 cm in length. Found in dry rainforest and sclerophyll forest, often over rocky outcrops chiefly in coastal areas north from the Hunter Valley,...

Citrus australasica (RUTACEAE) Finger Lime

Citrus australasica (RUTACEAE) Finger Lime

Hardy, spiny, shrub or small tree to 10 m but is usually smaller, especially when it has access to sunlight. Closely related to the domestic citrus. Common in rainforests of north-eastern New South Wales and South-East Queensland. Small leaves are oval...

Citrus australis (RUTACEAE) Native Lime, Round Lime

Citrus australis (RUTACEAE) Native Lime, Round Lime

Large shrub or small tree to 12 m in dry rainforest north from the Beenleigh area; endemic to (solely found in) Queensland. Branchlets often zigzag, with stiff thorns in leaf axils. Leaves simple, alternate, to 55 mm by 30 mm, elliptic to obovate or almost...

Clerodendrum floribundum (VERBENACEAE) Lolly Bush

Clerodendrum floribundum (VERBENACEAE) Lolly Bush

Shrub or tree to 10 m, usually less, north from Taree district, NSW, on the margins of coastal rainforest. Leaves mostly smooth, though new growth sometimes hairy. Margins entire, apex obtuse to acuminate, base acute to rounded or cordate, petiole 2-7 cm...

Clerodendrum tomentosum (VERBENACEAE) Hairy Lollybush

Clerodendrum tomentosum (VERBENACEAE) Hairy Lollybush

Shrub or small tree up to about 10 m tall in subtropical, dry, littoral and warm temperate rainforest. Ranging from Batemans Bay, NSW to Cape York, North Queensland. Can be used as pioneer species. Large, fragrant flowers and colourful fruit make this an...

Commelina diffusa (COMMELINACEAE) Blue Commelina

Commelina diffusa (COMMELINACEAE) Blue Commelina

A weak-stemmed creeping herb producing short upright branches and rooting at the joints (nodes) of the stem. Native to Australia, tropical Asia and Polynesia. Although native, often considered a weed of damp or shady places, gardens and along watercourses....

Cordyline petiolaris (ASTELIACEAE) Broad-leaved Palm Lily

Cordyline petiolaris (ASTELIACEAE) Broad-leaved Palm Lily

An upright plant with slender stems to 6 metres. Cordyline from the Greek cordyle, a swelling, referring to the swelling on the stems of some species. Petiolarlis, a petiole or leaf stalk, referring to the long petioles of the species. A hardy species for...

Cordyline stricta (ASTELIACEAE) Narrow-leaved Palm Lily

Cordyline stricta (ASTELIACEAE) Narrow-leaved Palm Lily

Narrow-leaved Palm Lily is an erect, slender plant to 2-4 m which forms spreading clumps in moist shady positions. Occurs in rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest in coastal lowlands in southern Qld and NSW down to Sydney. Dark green leaves to 50 cm by 2...

Corymbia citriodora (MYRTACEA) Spotted Gum

Corymbia citriodora (MYRTACEA) Spotted Gum

Spotted gum is a large tree to 40 m on shallow stony soils. An important forest tree, in demand for structural timber and honey production. It features more or less obvious dimples (slight depressions) on the white, silver, grey to pink or coppery bark....

Corymbia henryi (MYRTACEAE) Large-leaved Spotted Gum

Corymbia henryi (MYRTACEAE) Large-leaved Spotted Gum

Medium to large tree to 30 m, fast growing, found on relatively infertile soils from the Brisbane area, to south of Grafton in New South Wales. Found in moister sites along drainage lines. Bark smooth throughout, dull or glossy, white to grey or red-brown or...

Corymbia tessellaris (MYRTACEAE) Moreton Bay Ash, Carbeen

Corymbia tessellaris (MYRTACEAE) Moreton Bay Ash, Carbeen

A characteristic tree in eucalypt forest and associated woodlands on flat, deep soils of medium to high fertility, very noticeable by its collar of tessellated bark changing to smooth grey white. A fast-growing evergreen tree, 10-20 m tall. The lower part of...

Crinum pedunculatum (AMARYLLIDACAE) Swamp Lily, River Lily

Crinum pedunculatum (AMARYLLIDACAE) Swamp Lily, River Lily

A clumping, perennial lily, with strap-like fleshy leaves to 1 m by 10 cm. Grows along creeks and rivers, and in swampy areas. Its range is coastal Queensland and New South Wales as far south as Newcastle. Hardy and shade tolerant plant which will grow in...

Croton insularis (EUPHORBIACEAE) Silver Croton

Croton insularis (EUPHORBIACEAE) Silver Croton

Small tree up to 15 m in dry rainforest and its margins, Blue Mountains, NSW to Cape York, Queensland. Fruit is a greyish, globular capsule about 6 mm in diameter and is ripe November to January. Hardy plant which is a suitable size for a small garden. The...

Croton verreauxii (EUPHORBIACEAE) Native Cascarilla

Croton verreauxii (EUPHORBIACEAE) Native Cascarilla

Large shrub or small tree to 6 metres in dry rainforest and along the interface between rainforest and eucalypt forest from Illawarra, NSW to Gympie, Queensland and close to Darwin, Northern Territory. Relatively smooth branchlets with only a few scattered...

Cryptocarya glaucescens (LAURACEAE) Jackwood

Cryptocarya glaucescens (LAURACEAE) Jackwood

A medium tree to 20 m in subtropical and dry rainforest, also on margins and in regrowth, north from Bega district. Twigs mostly yellowish. Leaves simple, alternate, dark glossy green above, pale, glaucescent, ashy green waxy bloom below. Mostly oblong,...

Cryptocarya laevigata (LAURACEAE) Glossy Laurel

Cryptocarya laevigata (LAURACEAE) Glossy Laurel

Small to medium tree to 15 m in littoral, riverine rainforest, northern NSW to South-East Queensland and North Queensland. Large fruit, December to January. Attractive small bushy tree for average-sized gardens. Attracts birds. Dense crown of dark green...

Cryptocarya obovata (LAURACEAE) Pepperberry

Cryptocarya obovata (LAURACEAE) Pepperberry

Medium to large tree to 40 m from Gympie and Bunya Mountains in Queensland to Port Stephens, NSW, in subtropical rainforest, dry rainforest and along moist scrubby watercourses. Often buttressed at base, bark brown, more or less smooth, young growth...

Cryptocarya triplinervis (LAURACEAE) Three-veined Laurel

Cryptocarya triplinervis (LAURACEAE) Three-veined Laurel

Small to medium tree to 15 m. Common and abundant in littoral, riverine rainforest. Green, pale and slightly fragrant flowers in September to December. The fruit is a purplish black fleshy drupe which is ripe February. Attracts birds. Dense crown of...

Cupaniopsis anacardioides (SAPINDACEAE) Tuckeroo

Cupaniopsis anacardioides (SAPINDACEAE) Tuckeroo

A quick hardy small tree to 8 m. Good for extreme coastal conditions. Bird attracting. Good shade tree, dislikes heavy frost. Commonly planted street tree in Brisbane. Although native to the easterly sections of Enoggera catchment most examples are recent –...

Cupaniopsis parvifolia (SAPINDACEAE) Small-leaved Tuckeroo

Cupaniopsis parvifolia (SAPINDACEAE) Small-leaved Tuckeroo

  A medium tree growing up to 20 m, but usually smaller. In dry rainforest, chiefly in the coastal ranges but also at lower altitudes away from the sea. Compound leaves, alternate, leaflets 6-8. Leaflets leathery, dark dull green above, paler below, oblong,...

Cyclophyllum longipetalum (RUBIACEAE) Coast Canthium

Cyclophyllum longipetalum (RUBIACEAE) Coast Canthium

Foliage Small tree in littoral and subtropical rainforest, chiefly on the coast, north from Jervis Bay, NSW. Recorded as growing up to 25 metres tall with a 50 cm wide trunk, but is usually seen as a much smaller dense-canopied plant when seen in the wild...

Cymbopogon refractus (POACEAE) Barbed-wire Grass

Cymbopogon refractus (POACEAE) Barbed-wire Grass

A clumping grass native to eastern Australia, widespread and common, prefers lighter, poorer soils. Tufted, erect perennial to 1.5 m. Stems smooth, hairless, rigid, branching at maroon nodes. Habitat for small mammals and frogs. Seeds eaten by Rosellas...

Dendrocnide excelsa (URTICACEAE) Giant Stinging Tree

Dendrocnide excelsa (URTICACEAE) Giant Stinging Tree

Small tree to 15 m common in Queensland rainforests especially on the edges or in disturbed areas. The leaves are quite conspicuous, very large, broadly ovate, pale green, with stinging hairs. Often heavily chewed by insects. The young leaves have more...

Dendrocnide photinophylla (URTICACEAE) Shiny-leaved Stinging Tree

Dendrocnide photinophylla (URTICACEAE) Shiny-leaved Stinging Tree

Small tree to 15 m, in warmer rainforest, especially drier types, north from Richmond area, not common south of Seal Rocks, NSW. Trunk often flanged or buttressed, stinging hairs usually not very irritant. Leaves mostly elliptic to ovate, to 13 cm long, base...

Denhamia celastroides (CELASTRACEAE) Denhamia, Orange boxwood

Denhamia celastroides (CELASTRACEAE) Denhamia, Orange boxwood

Small tree to 7 m, branchlets striate. Grows in most types of rainforest and margins with wet sclerophyll forest. Leaves elliptic to oblanceolate, rarely lanceolate, mostly 4-12 cm long, 10-45 mm wide, apex acute, sometimes acuminate or rounded, margins...

Derris involuta (FABACEAE) Native Derris, Fish Poison Vine

Derris involuta (FABACEAE) Native Derris, Fish Poison Vine

Foliage A large woody vine growing into the canopy of rainforest, north from Wingham, NSW. Compound, alternate leaves with 9-13 ovate-elliptical leaflets up to 5 cm long and 2 cm wide. Pink mauve 1 cm pea flowers on arched racemes from September to October....

Desmodium rhytidophyllum (FABACEAE) Hairly Trefoil

Desmodium rhytidophyllum (FABACEAE) Hairly Trefoil

Twining perennial herb or trailing shrub up to 1 m long or tall on sandy or stony soils in dry sclerophyll forest, north from Nowra district, NSW. Stems with dense, rusty, spreading hairs. Leaves three-foliolate, both surfaces appressed-pubescent, petiole...

Dianella caerulea (PHORMIACEAE) Blue Flax Lily, Paroo Lily

Dianella caerulea (PHORMIACEAE) Blue Flax Lily, Paroo Lily

Clumping plant of erect strap like leaves to about 1 metre. Can tolerate damp conditions (prefers dry), widespread native found in many parts of Australia. Very hardy and long-lived once established. Grows in full sun and well-drained soil up to a height of...

Dioscorea transversa (DIOSCOREACEAE) Native Yam

Dioscorea transversa (DIOSCOREACEAE) Native Yam

  Herb with annual twining stems 2-4 m long; tuber often deep in the soil, cylindrical, widespread, chiefly in warmer rainforest and moist sclerophyll forest. Leaves ovate to broad-triangular, to 12 cm long, base cordate (heart shaped) or rarely hastate...

Diospyros australis (EBENACEAE) Black Plum

Diospyros australis (EBENACEAE) Black Plum

Small tree widespread in warmer rainforest, north from Batemans Bay, NSW. Leaves oblong to elliptic, to 10 cm long, apex obtuse to bluntly pointed, thick and tough, upper surface green and shiny, lower surface glabrous or sparsely hairy, pale yellowish green...

Diospyros fasciculosa (EBENACEAE) Grey Ebony

Diospyros fasciculosa (EBENACEAE) Grey Ebony

Tall tree to 30m (often smaller) with yellow, delicately perfumed flowers in September to November, also May. Edible yellow-green fruit, turning reddish black when ripe in April to July. A useful shade tree for larger gardens. Propagate from fresh seed,...

Diospyros geminata (EBENACEAE) Queensland Ebony

Diospyros geminata (EBENACEAE) Queensland Ebony

Small tree in dry rainforest and sub tropical rainforest. Bark of mature trees blackish, fissured and scaly. Previously known as Diospyros ferrea var. geminata. Hairless leathery to stiff leaves, slightly glossy. Distinguishable from the other Diospyros by...

Diploglottis australis (SAPINDACEAE) Native Tamarind

Diploglottis australis (SAPINDACEAE) Native Tamarind

Tall tree to 35 m. Rainforest pioneer with large leaves and, once established, a good growth rate. Can become quite leggy even without canopy to strive for, unlike many other rainforest plants which grow their crowns as soon as they get into the sun. There...

Diploglottis campbellii (SAPINDACEAE) Small-leaved Tamarind

Diploglottis campbellii (SAPINDACEAE) Small-leaved Tamarind

Compact rainforest canopy tree to 20 m high. Endangered. Extremely rare in the wild. Leaves are 10-35 cm long and comprise 4-8 leaflets. The leaflets are elliptic-oblong to more or less ovate, mostly 5-10 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, apex acute or shortly...

Dipodium variegatum (ORCHIDACEAE) Hyacinth Orchid

Dipodium variegatum (ORCHIDACEAE) Hyacinth Orchid

Terrestrial saprophyte orchid (reduced leaves, derives nourishment from decaying material) in open eucalypt forest throughout Brisbane, sometimes in the hundreds in a good flowering season. Found in littoral rainforest, subtropical rainforest, dry...

Dissiliaria baloghioides (PICRODENDRACEAE) Lancewood, Hauer

Dissiliaria baloghioides (PICRODENDRACEAE) Lancewood, Hauer

Medium tree to about 30 m in dry rainforest. It is uncommon with a number of disjunct populations. Found in South-East Queensland. Flowers are small, creamy brown in branched stalks from the branchlet apex and appear January to June. Fruit is a hairy, yellow...

Dodonaea triangularis (SAPINDACEAE) Triangle Leaf Hop Bush

Dodonaea triangularis (SAPINDACEAE) Triangle Leaf Hop Bush

Shrub to 3 m high in dry sclerophyll forest. Leaves obovate to oblanceolate, to 3.5 cm long and 30 cm wide, apex acute and usually three-toothed, base attenuate or broadly cuneate, margins entire. Flowers solitary or in 3-6-flowered axillary or terminal...

Dodonaea triquetra (SAPINDACEAE) Forest Hop Bush

Dodonaea triquetra (SAPINDACEAE) Forest Hop Bush

Erect shrub to 3 m high in dry or wet sclerophyll forest usually on sand, or similarly well drained soil. Leaves hairless, simple, elliptic, sometimes lanceolate or ovate, to 12 cm long, apex acuminate to acute, base narrow cuneate to attenuate, margins...

Doodia aspera (BLECHNACEAE) Prickly Rasp Fern

Doodia aspera (BLECHNACEAE) Prickly Rasp Fern

A common, spreading ground fern growing to about 40 cm tall. Found in rainforest margins and wet eucalypt forests in all eastern states. Named for Samuel Doody, an early English botanist. Aspera means rough and relates to the rough feel of the fronds. Very...

Drypetes deplanchei (PUTRANJIVACEAE) Yellow Tulipwood

Drypetes deplanchei (PUTRANJIVACEAE) Yellow Tulipwood

Medium-sized tree to 20 m common in dry rainforest. Also in littoral and riverine rainforests. Yellow male and female flowers on separate trees from September to October. Red-orange fruit is a drupe ripe January to March. Hardy shade tree, with edible friuit...

Echinochloa telmatophila (POACEAE) Swamp Barnyard Grass

Echinochloa telmatophila (POACEAE) Swamp Barnyard Grass

Recognisable by the conspicous reddish awns on the seed head. While it is listed as a weed in the Mount Coot-tha Forest Management Plan, Dr Sheldon Navie (Education Research Officer, CRC for Australian Weed Management) regards Echinochloa telmatophila as...

Echinostephia aculeata (MENISPERMACEAE) Prickly Tape Vine

Echinostephia aculeata (MENISPERMACEAE) Prickly Tape Vine

  Rarer of the two Stephanias (former name) found locally - a significant plant. It can be confused with Stephania japonica, but has softer foliage and small, soft, recurved hooks on the stems. Weak twiner with stems and petioles with prickles 1-2 mm long;...

Eclipta prostrata (ASTERACEAE) White Eclipta, False Daisy

Eclipta prostrata (ASTERACEAE) White Eclipta, False Daisy

An annual herb that can be found creeping on wet ground in disturbed areas. Native to Australia but not recorded in Peter Young's 1984 list of Enoggera species compiled for Brisbane Forest Park (now D'Aguilar National Park). Recorded as native in northern...

Ehretia acuminata (BORAGINACEAE) Koda

Ehretia acuminata (BORAGINACEAE) Koda

Tree to 30 m in margins of rainforest and disturbed rainforest. Leaves simple, alternate, toothed, elliptic-ovate leaves with 3-4 cm petioles. Small white perfumed flowers in panicles in spring. Sweet tasting, edible drupe, orange turning brown to 7 mm in...

Einadia hastata (CHENOPODIACEAE) Berry Saltbush

Einadia hastata (CHENOPODIACEAE) Berry Saltbush

A low, shrubby plant which grows into untidy clumps or as a straggler through scrub in heavy soils. Fairly widespread. Leaves opposite, sub-opposite or alternate. The leaves sometimes have white salt spots on the under-surface of the leaf. In some cases turn...

Elaeocarpus grandis (ELAEOCARPACEAE) Blue Quandong

Elaeocarpus grandis (ELAEOCARPACEAE) Blue Quandong

  Large tree to 35 metres with buttressed trunk, branches layered. Occurs in subtropical rainforest and along moist, scrubby watercourses. An endemic Australian species, occurring along the east coast from Nambucca River in NSW to Cooktown in North...

Elaeocarpus obovatus (ELAEOCARPACEAE) Hard Quandong

Elaeocarpus obovatus (ELAEOCARPACEAE) Hard Quandong

A medium to large tree suitable for larger gardens and windbreaks, common pioneer and remnant. Attractive in both flower and fruit. Hard propably refers to the wood, which is harder than theBlue Quandong E. grandis. Host plant for larvae of Fiery Jewel...

Elaeocarpus reticulatus (ELAEOCARPACEAE) Blueberry Ash

Elaeocarpus reticulatus (ELAEOCARPACEAE) Blueberry Ash

Blueberry Ash is a small tree to 8 m found along water courses, often on sandy soils. Endemic Australian species, occurring all along the east coast from Fraser Island, Queensland down to Flinders Island, Tasmania in warmer temperate conditions along the...

Elattostachys xylocarpa (SAPINDACEAE) White Tamarind

Elattostachys xylocarpa (SAPINDACEAE) White Tamarind

Tree to 10 m high, young leaves often reddish; new growth rusty-pubescent. Leaves 6-15 cm long, rachis extended beyond last leaflet; leaflets 2-6, elliptic to obovate, 3-8 cm long, margins usually irregularly toothed. Upper surface shiny and smooth or finely...

Embelia australiana (MYRSINACEAE) Embelia

Embelia australiana (MYRSINACEAE) Embelia

Woody climber with twining stems. Simple alternate elliptical to obovate leathery leaves 8 cm long by 4 cm wide with acute tips; glabrous shoots. Leaves with translucent or opaque dots scattered evenly over the surface (Williams and Harden). Distinct zigzag...

Eremophila debilis (MYOPORACEAE) Winter Apple

Eremophila debilis (MYOPORACEAE) Winter Apple

  A low, trailing plant with weak, fleshy stems capable of spreading to 2 metres in diameter. Some forms may be partially upright to about half a metre. Common in dry, woodland areas along the coast and inland areas of eastern New South Wales and southern...

Eucalyptus carnea (MYRTACEAE) Broad-leaved White Mahogany

Eucalyptus carnea (MYRTACEAE) Broad-leaved White Mahogany

Medium to large tree to 30 m, mostly 10-25 m. Prefers clay soils in an open, sunny position. Grey-brown fibrous bark (stringybark). Thick-textured dark green-blue leaves, frequently tatty, slightly paler below. Can be mistaken for E. acemenoides, a similar...

Eucalyptus microcorys (MYRTACEAE) Tallowwood

Eucalyptus microcorys (MYRTACEAE) Tallowwood

Large tree to 30 m high occasionally 40 m with persistent stringy red-brown or brown-black bark. Common in dry rainforest and moist to dry eucalypt forest. Recognized by the reddish rough bark, discolorous leaves (top of leaf darker than bottom) and...

Eucalyptus propinqua (MYRTACEAE) Small-fruited Grey Gum

Eucalyptus propinqua (MYRTACEAE) Small-fruited Grey Gum

Tall tree to 40 m with a straight trunk and smooth grey bark which sheds to reveal beautiful orange new bark. See ORANGE, think GREY, say PINK (propinqua) - a phrase for remembering the identification. Native in Wyong in New South Wales northwards into...

Eucalyptus siderophloia (MYRTACEAE) Grey Ironbark

Eucalyptus siderophloia (MYRTACEAE) Grey Ironbark

Tree to 45 m. Locally frequent in wet forest on soils of moderate fertility north from Sydney. Bark persistent throughout, ironbark, grey black. Leaves lanceolate or broad lanceolate, falcate, acute, basally tapered, dull, green or grey green, thick,...

Eupomatia laurina (EUPOMATIACAEA) Bolwarra

Eupomatia laurina (EUPOMATIACAEA) Bolwarra

 Shrub or small tree, branchlets often black widespread in or near warmer rainforest and moist eucalypt forest on the coast and lower ranges. Often multi-trunked, with glossy, dark green leaves on slender zigzag arching canes. Bolwarra is the local...

Euroschinus falcata (ANACARDIACEAE) Ribbonwood, Blush Cudgerie

Euroschinus falcata (ANACARDIACEAE) Ribbonwood, Blush Cudgerie

A pioneer species, tall tree, buttressed, growing to 40 m. Branchlets aromatic when broken, exuding a clear mango or mandarin-scented sap. New growth exhibits pink-red stems and mid veins. Trunk is often flanged or buttressed at the base in large trees. The...

Eustrephus latifolius (PHILESIACEAE) Wombat Berry

Eustrephus latifolius (PHILESIACEAE) Wombat Berry

Attractive climber capable of dense growth if in the open. Grows in sclerophyll forest, woodland, heath and on margins of rainforest; widespread, from coastal districts inland, Queensland, Victoria, Pacific Islands, Malesia. Eustrephus latifolius is the sole...

Ficus coronata (MORACEAE) Creek Sandpaper Fig

Ficus coronata (MORACEAE) Creek Sandpaper Fig

Straggly tree to 12 metres, fast growing, along creeks, in rainforest and open country, widespread on coast and tablelands. Grows densely in full sun. An excellent as a pioneer tree and for stream bank stabilisation. Leaves ovate (egg-shaped) to oblong, to...

Ficus fraseri (MORACEAE) Sandpaper Fig

Ficus fraseri (MORACEAE) Sandpaper Fig

Rarer of the two local sandpaper figs, the other being Ficus coronata. Small to medium tree with a sparse, spreading crown of rough leaves. Bird attracting bright orange-red fruit which ripens late summer. The leaves are dark green, 6-13 cm long, mainly...

Ficus macrophylla (MORACEAE) Moreton Bay Fig

Ficus macrophylla (MORACEAE) Moreton Bay Fig

Moreton Bay Fig is a strangler fig with huge trunk, widely buttressed, growing to 50 metres in subtropical, littoral and dry rainforests and riverine scrub. Endemic Australian species, ranging from Shoalhaven River, NSW to Rockingham Bay, North...

Ficus rubiginosa (MORACEAE) Rock Fig, Port Jackson Fig

Ficus rubiginosa (MORACEAE) Rock Fig, Port Jackson Fig

Ficus obliqua and Ficus platypoda have recently been subsumed by Ficus rubiginosa. A small to large spreading tree, often buttressed; young stems rusty-pubescent commonly scattered in rocky sites on dry hills in open forest or in dry, littoral or rarely...

Flindersia australis (RUTACEAE) Crow’s Ash, Australian Teak

Flindersia australis (RUTACEAE) Crow’s Ash, Australian Teak

Tall tree to 40 m in dry rainforest (complex microphyll closed forest) extending into eucalypt forest valued as a timber, especially for flooring. Smaller when planted in the open. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, crowded towards the end of branches,...

Gahnia aspera (CYPERACEAE) Rough Saw-sedge

Gahnia aspera (CYPERACEAE) Rough Saw-sedge

Clumping sedge to 1 metre with long and narrow leaves, rough to the touch. Common in eastern Australia along the Great Dividing Range from the south coast of NSW to northern Queensland in a variety of habitat including rainforest. Deserves to be grown more...

Gahnia sieberiana (CYPERACEAE) Red-fruited Saw-sedge

Gahnia sieberiana (CYPERACEAE) Red-fruited Saw-sedge

Gahnia sieberiana is one of the most commonly seen members of the genus usually found in damp areas or in areas subject to periodic innundation. Gahnia, after Henricus Gahn, a Swedish botanist. Sieberiana, after Franz Sieber, an Austrian botanist. The common...

Galactia tenuiflora (FABACEAE) Snail Flower

Galactia tenuiflora (FABACEAE) Snail Flower

Slender twining hairy or almost hairless perennial mostly along coast or in sclerophyll forest. There are quite a few of these small climbers on dry hillsides including the native glycines. They are members of the pea family. Leaves three-foliate. Terminal...

Geitonoplesium cymosum (PHILESIACEAE) Scrambling Lily

Geitonoplesium cymosum (PHILESIACEAE) Scrambling Lily

An evergreen perennial climber (vine) growing to 4 m with striated green stems, leaves to 8 cm long, dull green, stiff, with a raised central vein. Has a tuberous rootstock which persists in tough times. It can grow in semi-shade or in the open. It requires...

Glochidion ferdinandi (EUPHORBIACEAE) Cheese Tree

Glochidion ferdinandi (EUPHORBIACEAE) Cheese Tree

A small to medium densely growing tree to 15 m with simple, alternate, pseudo-pinnate leaves. Common, hardy, and usually found on margins of rainforest and along scrubby watercourses. Glochidion from Greek glchin or glchis projecting point, barb of an arrow,...

Glycine tabacina (FABACEAE) Twining Glycine, Love Creeper

Glycine tabacina (FABACEAE) Twining Glycine, Love Creeper

Small twiner in amongst grasses and shrubs with stoloniferous stems (capable of taking root, producing new plants). Leaves are trifolilate, sometimes long and skinny, sometimes rounder. Similar to G. clandestina which has no petiolules (it has sessile...

Grevillea robusta (PROTEACEA) Silky Oak

Grevillea robusta (PROTEACEA) Silky Oak

Tree to 40 m tall, often less, common in subtropical to dry rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest, on the coast and inland ranges north of Coffs Harbour district, NSW. When full grown pyramidal in shape with heavy horizontal limbs and a thick trunk. Ferny,...

Grewia latifolia (TILIACEAE) Dog’s Balls

Grewia latifolia (TILIACEAE) Dog’s Balls

Deciduous shrub with many disorganised stems and star hairs, mostly in drier parts. Not considered a rainforest plant. Drought tolerant and hardy. Survives in very harsh conditions. Leaves egg-shaped to broadly heart-shaped with irregularly toothed margins....

Guioa semiglauca (SAPINDACEAE) Native Quince, Guioa

Guioa semiglauca (SAPINDACEAE) Native Quince, Guioa

Tree to 6 m, bark smooth, grey to dark grey, often more or less blotchy with lichens. Found in warmer rainforest from the coast to the ranges, often in regrowth. Hardy, common, widespread. An important local species, food for birds and insects. Pronounced...

Gymnostachys anceps (ARACEAE) Settlers Twine, Boorgay

Gymnostachys anceps (ARACEAE) Settlers Twine, Boorgay

  Upright, slender, grass-like plant to 2 m in moister forest, dry rainforest, riparian areas. Forms erect grass-like tussocks. Perennial herb, not or hardly clumped; rhizome creeping. Fibres were used to make fishing line. There are records of use as string...

Harpullia pendula (SAPINDACEA) Australian Tulipwood

Harpullia pendula (SAPINDACEA) Australian Tulipwood

A hardy, fast growing, small to medium evergreen tree with attractive dense green foliage. Leaves are alternate, pinnate, with 4-8 leaflets. Greenish yellow flowers in sprays September to December. Features showy orange seed-cases that and open to reveal...

Heteropogon contortus (POACEAE) Black Speargrass, Tanglehead

Heteropogon contortus (POACEAE) Black Speargrass, Tanglehead

Perennial tussock grass to 1.5 m tall, variable in habit. Leaves and stems are green to blue-green and usually hairless or with only a few scattered hairs. The leaf sheath and blade are folded along the mid-rib and leaves are 5–30 cm long. The seed heads...

Hibbertia scandens (DILLENIACEAE) Twining Guinea Flower

Hibbertia scandens (DILLENIACEAE) Twining Guinea Flower

Scrambling and climbing vine with shining, green leaves to 8 cm long. Good ground cover for rocks and logs but will only climb to several metres. Found in a variety of habitats from coastal dunes to rainforest edges. Masses of bright yellow five-petalled...

Hibiscus diversifolius (MALVACEAE) Swamp Hibiscus

Hibiscus diversifolius (MALVACEAE) Swamp Hibiscus

Medium-sized, prickly shrub to 2 m in poorly drained areas. Leaves are alternate, serrate and rough and about 8 cm long. Flowers are yellow with a maroon centre and are produced from spring to autumn. Propagate from seed and cuttings. Can get leggy in tubes...

Hibiscus heterophyllus (MALVACEAE) Native Rosella

Hibiscus heterophyllus (MALVACEAE) Native Rosella

Fast-growing shrub, capable of growing to 6 m. Attracts fauna particularly insects (notably Scutelleridae), and therefore insect predators. Host plant for caterpillars of the moths Xanthodes transversa, Anomis combinans and Onebala hibisci. Leaves are up to...

Homalanthus nutans (EUPHORBIACEAE) Native Bleeding Heart

Homalanthus nutans (EUPHORBIACEAE) Native Bleeding Heart

Fast-growing shrub or small tree growing to 6 m from southern NSW to north-east Queensland and Melanesia in margins of subtropical rainforest, dry rainforest and in regrowth areas. A very useful pioneer species for rainforest revegetation projects. Leaves...

Homalanthus stillingiifolius (EUPHORIBIACEAE)

Homalanthus stillingiifolius (EUPHORIBIACEAE)

Shrub to 2 m high in eucalypt forest, rarely in rainforest, mostly on rocky sites, mainly in coastal areas. A promising Lantana substitute. Leaves more or less ovate, to 6 cm long, upper surface not hairy, lower surface usually sparsely hairy. Fruit is a...

Hovea acutifolia (FABACEAE) Purple Pea Bush, Pointed-leaf Hovea

Hovea acutifolia (FABACEAE) Purple Pea Bush, Pointed-leaf Hovea

Open shrub to 4 m with glossy dark green leaves covered in fine rusty brown coloured hairs on rainforest margins or other damp or sheltered sites. Leaves are green on top, golden brown underneath. Bears masses of purple pea-flowers in winter to spring which...

Hybanthus stellarioides (VIOLACEAE) Spade Flower

Hybanthus stellarioides (VIOLACEAE) Spade Flower

Spade Flower is a herb to 30 cm in dry eucalypt forest and wallum woodlands, flowering mostly in spring and summer but also throughout the year. Common on sandy soils from Illawarra region NSW to Bundaberg, host plant for common glasswing butterflies. Leaves...

Hymenosporum flavum (PITTOSPORACEAE) Native Frangipani

Hymenosporum flavum (PITTOSPORACEAE) Native Frangipani

Medium tree to 20 m in all types of rainforest. A popular garden plant whose scent is not as strong but just as pleasant as the exotic Frangipanis common in Brisbane gardens. Simple, alternate leaves to 15 cm, soft, dark green above, paler and sometimes a...

Indigofera australis (FABACEAE) Australian Indigo

Indigofera australis (FABACEAE) Australian Indigo

Spreading shrub up to 2.5 m tall widespread in woodland and eucalypt forest. Leaves compound, to 10 cm long, leaflets usually 11-25, sometimes but rarely as few as 5, oblong to elliptic, 10-40 mm long. Pods terete (straightish, long and narrow) to 45 mm...

Jacksonia scoparia (FABACEAE) Dogwood

Jacksonia scoparia (FABACEAE) Dogwood

Pea-flowered shrub with flat, angular or winged branchlets which are entirely leafless except in young growth. The common name of dogwood is said to refer to the smell from the wood when burnt. Most of the year the general effect is of a dense and softly...

Jagera pseudorhus (SAPINDACEAE) Foam bark

Jagera pseudorhus (SAPINDACEAE) Foam bark

A small to medium, very hardy tree to 15 m. Among the first species to regenerate in disturbed Enoggera catchment dry rainforest. Its bark was used by Aborigines as a fish poison. It contains saponins, which break the bonds of water molecules, causing them...

Juncus usitatus (JUNCACEAE) Common Rush, Tussock Rush

Juncus usitatus (JUNCACEAE) Common Rush, Tussock Rush

Perennial, densely tufted rush, very common on stream banks and other moist places. Occurs naturally throughout Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Juncus means basket binder, usitatus means ordinary. It is an important locally native plant right on...

Kennedia rubicunda (FABACEAE) Dusky Coral Pea

Kennedia rubicunda (FABACEAE) Dusky Coral Pea

Vigorous, scrambling vine capable of forming dense mats. Rusty stems to 4 m with silky hairs. Common on sandy and stony soils throughout Brisbane. Leaves alternate, trifoliolate (in groups of 3). Flowers are dark red or purple in groups of 2-12. Flowers are...

Legnephora moorei (MENISPERMACEAE) Round-leaf Vine

Legnephora moorei (MENISPERMACEAE) Round-leaf Vine

Vigorous, woody twining vine which can grow into the rainforest canopy in most types of rainforest. Leaves simple, alternate, ovate-rounded up to 20 cm long and 16 cm wide, glaucous-white underside and dark green upper surface with a stiff texture. Green,...

Lepidosperma laterale (CYPERACEAE) Variable Sword Sedge

Lepidosperma laterale (CYPERACEAE) Variable Sword Sedge

An upright, slender plant with strap like leaves and flower stalks to 1 m on a range of habitats, especially woodland and forest, mostly on sandy soils, often on rocky hillsides. Name means scaly seeded. Attracts birds and butterflies. John Hodgon B.Sc....

Leptospermum petersonii (MYRTACEAE) Lemon-scented Tea-tree

Leptospermum petersonii (MYRTACEAE) Lemon-scented Tea-tree

Shrub to 5 m found near wet sclerophyll forest or rainforest, on sandy soils or on rocky escarpments, north from Port Macquarie, NSW. Fast-growing screen plant. Slightly frost tender. Bark flaky, persistent and fibrous, younger stems hairy, soon...

Leptospermum polygalifolium (MYRTACEAE) Wild May

Leptospermum polygalifolium (MYRTACEAE) Wild May

A dense shrub to 4 m. Common in coastal areas of eastern Australia. Grows along creek banks and in open forest. Was formerly known as Leptospermum flavescens. Leaves are grey green, alternate to 15 mm. Masses of small, white five-petalled flowers to 10 mm...

Lobelia purpurascens (LOBELIACEAE) White Root

Lobelia purpurascens (LOBELIACEAE) White Root

A perennial ground-covering herb widespread in open eucalypt forest, and moist shady areas. It is also a weed of lawns, footpaths and cultivation. Thin, hairless stems are often purplish in colour, and mostly prostrate. Plants form white, fleshy runners...

Lomandra hystrix (LOMANDRACEAE) Creek Matrush

Lomandra hystrix (LOMANDRACEAE) Creek Matrush

A robust matrush found near or in creeks on sandy soils and river stones, north of Taree NSW. Can form clumps up to 2 m high. A useful plant for revegetation and erosion control. The starchy, fleshy bases of the leaves are edible (they taste of raw peas)....

Lomandra laxa (R.Br.) A.T.Lee (LOMANDRACEAE) Delicate Matrush

Lomandra laxa (R.Br.) A.T.Lee (LOMANDRACEAE) Delicate Matrush

Perennial tussock, sparse in marginal rainforest habitats, also in sandy soils over sandstone and in deep sands. Leaves flat, rather thin, 2-4 mm wide, bluish grey when dry. Stanley and Ross state "Widespread but not common in eastern Moreton Region, usually...

Lophostemon confertus (MYRTACEA) Brush Box

Lophostemon confertus (MYRTACEA) Brush Box

Tall tree growing to 35 m in forest, much shorter and many-branched in littoral rainforest. Found in all types of rainforest, along margins and in open forests. Bark rough and scaly, leaves simple, appearing in whorls toward branchlet ends; blade glossy dark...

Lophostemon suaveolens (MYRTACEAE) Swamp Box

Lophostemon suaveolens (MYRTACEAE) Swamp Box

Large tree with red-brown, fibrous-papery, persistent bark. Grows in sclerophyll forest, widespread and common in coastal districts, often on swampy ground or alluvial flats. Leaves ovate (egg-shaped) to elliptic, to 15 cm long, 4-5 cm wide, tip blunt or...

Macadamia integrifolia (PROTACEAE) Queensland Nut, Bopple Nut

Macadamia integrifolia (PROTACEAE) Queensland Nut, Bopple Nut

Small to medium-sized tree to about 15 metres with a bushy habit. The leaves are arranged in whorls of three to six, lanceolate to obovate or elliptical in shape, 6–30 cm long and 2–13 cm broad, with an entire or spiny-serrated margin. Flowers are produced...

Macaranga tanarius (EUPHORBIACEAE) Macaranga

Macaranga tanarius (EUPHORBIACEAE) Macaranga

A pioneer species, fast growing, from Richmond River, NSW to Cooktown, North Queensland and into South-East Asia. Leaves are broadly ovate large, with pointed tip. Useful for establishing a canopy quickly. Weed exclusion underneath trees is often found and...

Maclura cochinchinensis (MORACEAE) Cockspur Thorn

Maclura cochinchinensis (MORACEAE) Cockspur Thorn

A woody climber or straggling shrub. Can be rampant, throwing out long-arched stems of new growth. Cut stems release a somewhat milky latex. Common in dry rainforest, subtropical rainforest and along scrubby watercourses. Spines 0.5–2.5 cm long. This plant...

Mallotus philippensis (EUPHORBIACEAE) Red Kamala

Mallotus philippensis (EUPHORBIACEAE) Red Kamala

Tree to 20 m high on margins and within warmer rainforest; chiefly north from the Hunter River, NSW. Very useful as an edge plant. A dense shady canopy quickly develops. Leaves with lamina (leaf blades) ovate to oblong, mostly 4-12 cm long, margins entire,...

Marsdenia coronata (APOCYNACEAE) Milk Vine

Marsdenia coronata (APOCYNACEAE) Milk Vine

Uncommon slender climber growing mostly in eucalypt-dominated open forest but also seen in association with dry rainforest margins. Possibly endemic to South-East Qld, but may extend into north-east NSW. Latex white, colleters (glands) present in groups of 3...

Maytenus bilocularis (CELASTRACEAE) Orangebark

Maytenus bilocularis (CELASTRACEAE) Orangebark

Large shrub or small tree up to 12 m tall from the Macleay River, NSW to Cape York, North Queensland in dry and subtropical rainforest and sclerophyll forest. Bark is orange brown, branchlets with fine vertical ridges. Leaves are stiff, slightly glossy,...

Maytenus disperma (CELASTRACEAE) Orange Bush

Maytenus disperma (CELASTRACEAE) Orange Bush

Grows mostly in dry and subtropical rainforest, north from Lismore, NSW. From Greek di two and sperma seed, referring to the two seeds in each cell. Also called Orange Bark, Orange Boxwood, Taper-leaf Orang- bark and Orange Tree. Leaves obovate,...

Maytenus silvestris (CELASTRACEAE) Narrow-leaved Orange Bush

Maytenus silvestris (CELASTRACEAE) Narrow-leaved Orange Bush

Shrub to 4.5 m high, in rainforest and moist eucalypt forest, north from Camden and the Illawarra region, NSW. Leaves rather thick and tough narrow, mostly 1-8 cm long, 2-15 mm wide, apex pointed or blunt, base tapered, margins toothed or entire, surfaces...

Melaleuca bracteata (MYRTACEAE) Black Tea-tree

Melaleuca bracteata (MYRTACEAE) Black Tea-tree

Shrub or small tree to 15 m with hard, fissured bark, fine narrow leaves and white or cream flowers in cylindrical spikes in summer. Widespread, along watercourses or on heavier inland soils in depressions; north from the Macleay River, NSW. Hardy in light...

Melastoma affine (MELASTOMATACEA) Blue Tongue, Native Lasiandra

Melastoma affine (MELASTOMATACEA) Blue Tongue, Native Lasiandra

Rounded rainforest shrub, attractively veined foliage, long flowering mauve-purple flowers in summer and sweet edible fruit (which will stain your tongue blue, thus the common name). Attracts Miskin Jewel butterfly, birds. Useful wetland plant. Honey bees...

Melia azedarach (MELIACEAE) White Cedar

Melia azedarach (MELIACEAE) White Cedar

Small to medium tree in subtropical and dry rainforest, mostly on margins and in regrowth. Deciduous. Almost a pantropical weed, and weedy outside its range. Found throughout Asia, China and India. Native from Iran to northern Australia. When burnt has very...

Microlaena stipoides (POACEAE) Weeping Grass

Microlaena stipoides (POACEAE) Weeping Grass

A tufted perennial grass to 0.7 m that produces year round green growth. It has slender weeping seed heads, giving rise to its common name Weeping Grass. Microlaena is a genus of grass with a single species Microlaena stipoides or Ehrharta stipoides. It...

Micromelum minutum (RUTACEAE) Lime Berry

Micromelum minutum (RUTACEAE) Lime Berry

Shrub to small tree to 9 m high mainly in drier lowland rainforest. Masses of multicoloured fruit and large clusters of sweetly perfumed white flowers can occur at the same time. Leaves 10-45 cm long; leaflets 7-15, more or less ovate, 2-10 cm long, 1-6 cm...

Mischocarpus pyriformis (SAPINDACEAE) Yellow Pear Fruit

Mischocarpus pyriformis (SAPINDACEAE) Yellow Pear Fruit

Attractive glossy foliage and bright orange fruit. Good shade species, sometimes slow growing. Timber was used for axe handles. Small, slightly perfumed, cream flowers in large terminal panicles February to May. Yellow-orange, pear-shaped fruit ripe,...

Morinda jasminoides (RUBIACEAE) Sweet Morinda

Morinda jasminoides (RUBIACEAE) Sweet Morinda

A slender bushy climber in or near most types of rainforest from Victoria to north-east Queensland and inland to the Bunya Mountains. Creamy orange flower in summer. Orange fruit, irregularly shaped. Ripe March - April. A delightful light climber with...

Myoporum acuminatum (MYOPORACEAE) Waterbush, Mangrove Boobialla

Myoporum acuminatum (MYOPORACEAE) Waterbush, Mangrove Boobialla

Myoporum acuminatum is found in eastern Australia in rainforest or wet eucalyptus forest near the coast, often associated with mangroves, occasionally in drier rainforests, north from Bega. The plant first appeared in scientific literature in Prodromus...

Myrsine variabilis (MYRSINACEAE) Muttonwood

Myrsine variabilis (MYRSINACEAE) Muttonwood

Small tree to 12 m, important dry rainforest regenerator in rainforest and open forest on the coast and adjacent ranges north from Milton, NSW. Often in exposed positions on the coast. Formerly Rapanea variabilis. Leaves mostly obovate to oblanceolate, 3-10...

Notelaea longifolia (OLEACEAE) Native Olive

Notelaea longifolia (OLEACEAE) Native Olive

Small tree to 10 m, branchlets grey or brown, usually with conspicuous white lenticels. Several forms exist, including subspecies longifolia and glabra. Range is north from Dunoon near Lismore. Easily grown small tree which tolerates neglect. Leaves variable...

Olea paniculata (OLEACEAE) Native Olive, Maulwood

Olea paniculata (OLEACEAE) Native Olive, Maulwood

Tree to 30 m high, trunk to 90 cm wide, branches with conspicuous lenticels. Leaves opposite, ovate to elliptic, usually 5-10 cm long, margins entire, upper surface glossy green, lower surface paler and with small hollow domatia along midvein. Many flowered...

Olearia nernstii (ASTERACEAE) Olearia

Olearia nernstii (ASTERACEAE) Olearia

Shrub to 2 m high in sclerophyll forest or open woodland; widespread in coastal districts. Leaves alternate, apex acute, margins toothed or prickly. Upper surface subglabrous, lower surface brown-tomentose, petiole to 10 mm long. Flower heads terminal. Ray...

Oplismenus aemulus (POACEAE) Creeping Beard Grass

Oplismenus aemulus (POACEAE) Creeping Beard Grass

Creeping and matting grass to 0.3 m that roots at the nodes. Can form a thick ground cover in shaded areas. Widespread in forests in moist and shaded areas. Leaves are lance shaped with wavy margins to 3 cm. Leaves with ligule around 3 mm long, membranous at...

Ottochloa gracillima (POACEAE) Graceful Grass

Ottochloa gracillima (POACEAE) Graceful Grass

Slender spreading perennial grass to 30 cm high. Leaves are 3-8 cm long. Grows in shady areas often near water. Coastal districts north from Gosford. Roots at the nodes. This graceful Ottochloa can form quite thick mats and drifts if left alone. Will die...

Ozothamnus diosmifolius (ASTERACEAE) Sago Flower

Ozothamnus diosmifolius (ASTERACEAE) Sago Flower

A small, erect and open shrub to about 1.5 metres but sometimes larger. Leaves linear, 10-15 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, apex reflexed, margins tightly revolute; lamina discolorous, upper surface green and scabrous, white woolly lower surface. Small flowers in...

Pandorea pandorana (BIGNONIACEAE) Wonga-wonga Vine

Pandorea pandorana (BIGNONIACEAE) Wonga-wonga Vine

Vigorous woody climber that will ascend into the rainforest canopy. Compound pinnate entire leaves with 3 to 13 linear to ovate-lanceolate leaflets that have distinctive abrupt short points; juvenile leaflets have a few short teeth. Pandorea is after the...

Parsonsia lanceolata (APOCYNACEAE) Rough Silkpod

Parsonsia lanceolata (APOCYNACEAE) Rough Silkpod

Climber with twining stems to 4 m high, sap watery, in woodland, vine thicket and dry rainforest, north from the Hunter Valley, NSW. Leaves variable in shape, lanceolate or narrow to broad-elliptic, mostly 3-10 cm long, base cuneate, both surfaces hairless...

Parsonsia straminea (APOCYNACEAE) Monkey Rope, Silk Pod

Parsonsia straminea (APOCYNACEAE) Monkey Rope, Silk Pod

Parsonsia straminea is a climber (vine) with opposite leaves, watery-milky sap. Climbs by means of roots which form sporadically along the stem of the plant which grip the trunk. Widespread and common in most types of rainforest and sclerophyll forest north...

Passiflora aurantia (PASSIFLORACEAE) Native Passionfruit

Passiflora aurantia (PASSIFLORACEAE) Native Passionfruit

Passiflora aurantia is a species of native passionfruit. It is a host plant for larvae of the glasswing butterfly. The name refers to the flower parts symbolically representing Christ's passion and aurantia meaning orange coloured, referring to the...

Pavetta australiensis (RUBIACEAE) Pavetta, Butterfly Bush

Pavetta australiensis (RUBIACEAE) Pavetta, Butterfly Bush

Small rounded shrub to 4 m with soft, green leaves. Triangular stipules prominent on branchlets, persisting on stems. Terminal buds shiny. Leaves opposite, dark green, softly succulent looking. Beehawk moths feed on the leaves. Found in drier rainforest...

Persicaria attenuata (POLYGONACEAE) White Smartweed

Persicaria attenuata (POLYGONACEAE) White Smartweed

Stout decumbent herb 60-100 cm high; stems not hairy or with very scattered long hairs; found on margins of open swamps; occasional. Leaves narrow-ovate to 20 cm, petiole 10-40 mm long Inflorescences are elongate-cylindrical spikes, very dense, white. Fruit...

Persicaria decipiens (POLYGONACEAE) Slender Knotweed

Persicaria decipiens (POLYGONACEAE) Slender Knotweed

Persicaria decipiens is an annual or perennial herb found all throughout the Australian mainland and New Zealand. Sparingly branched, slender stems to 60 cm long. The stems spread along the ground and root at the base then gradually slope upwards. Leaves are...

Persicaria hydropiper (POLYGONACEAE) Water Pepper

Persicaria hydropiper (POLYGONACEAE) Water Pepper

Upright summer annual to about 1 m, branching occasionally. It has a tendency to sprawl and lean on adjacent plants for support. The hairless stems are green or red. Common in damp places. Possibly introduced. Alternate leaves up to 100 mm long, lanceolate,...

Persicaria strigosa (POLYGONACEAE) Spotted Knotweed

Persicaria strigosa (POLYGONACEAE) Spotted Knotweed

Herb with stems creeping, prostrate to decumbent, slender, common in open swamps and still sections of creeks. Leaves to 6.5 cm long (hasteate), 15-32 mm wide, petiole 8-25 mm long. Inflorescence of 2-4 branches with small terminal subglobose flower clusters...

Persoonia sericea (PROTEACEAE) Silky Geebung

Persoonia sericea (PROTEACEAE) Silky Geebung

Erect to spreading shrub, young branchlets moderately to densely hairy, in woodland to dry sclerophyll forest, north from Grenfell, NSW. Grows in well-drained soils derived from a variety of parent materials including granite, sandstone, metasediments and...

Petalostigma pubescenes (PICRODENDRACEAE) Quinine Bush

Petalostigma pubescenes (PICRODENDRACEAE) Quinine Bush

Shrub or small tree to 10 m high, in dry rainforest or in open forest, north from Ramornie on the Clarence River, NSW. Leaves ovate to more or less circular, to 6 cm long, margins mostly entire, upper surface dark green; lower surface grey and finely...

Pimelea linifolia (THYMELAEACEAE) Rice Flower

Pimelea linifolia (THYMELAEACEAE) Rice Flower

Pimelea is a genus of about 108 species, in Australia, New Zealand. In Australia there are 90 species (endemic), all States. Herbs, shrubs or small trees, often with very tough bark. Leaves mostly opposite or subopposite, usually paler on lower surface;...

Pipturus argenteus (URTICACEAE) Native Mulberry

Pipturus argenteus (URTICACEAE) Native Mulberry

A straggly shrub or small tree to 6 m in subtropical, dry and riverine rainforest north from Lismore to North Queensland, mostly in coastal areas. A good fast-growing screening plant where it has access to water. Often used as a pioneer. Very soft stems,...

Pittosporum multiflorum (PITTOSPORACEAE) Orange Thorn

Pittosporum multiflorum (PITTOSPORACEAE) Orange Thorn

A common understorey shrub to 2 m tall in or near rainforest or wet sclerophyll forest. White, tiny flowers appearing in summer. Edible orange globular berry ripe May - July. This is a rigid, many-branched spiny shrub liking full sun or shade. Attracts small...

Pittosporum revolutum (PITTOSPORACEAE) Brisbane Laurel

Pittosporum revolutum (PITTOSPORACEAE) Brisbane Laurel

Large shrub about 3 m with more or less rusty brown undersides of leaves. Pale to strong yellow flowers precede orange fruit with red seed. A rainforest pioneer species. The shoots are rusty brown and hairy. This is a hardy tree that can grow larger in...

Pittosporum undulatum (PITTOSPORACEAE) Sweet Pittosporum

Pittosporum undulatum (PITTOSPORACEAE) Sweet Pittosporum

Sweet Pittosporum or Victorian Box is a medium-size rainforest tree growing to 10 m. It has a dense shrubby habit and occurs naturally from Biggenden in Queensland down the east coast as far as Victoria. In southern areas of Australia it is spread by birds...

Platycerium bifurcatum (POLYPODIACEAE) Elkhorn Fern

Platycerium bifurcatum (POLYPODIACEAE) Elkhorn Fern

A cluster of many individuals, shield fronds are deeply lobed, fertile fronds stand semi-erect or nodding, becoming pendulous with age. The base of the fertile frond is slender and narrowly wedge-shaped, whilst the upper half of the frond forks out two or...

Platycerium superbum (POLYPODIACEAE) Staghorn

Platycerium superbum (POLYPODIACEAE) Staghorn

  Platycerium is a genus of about 18 species of ferns, four of which occur in eastern Australia. Two, the Elkhorn P. bifurcatum and the Staghorn P. superbum are well-known in cultivation. Staghorns are generally epiphytic (growing on trees), or occasionally...

Plectranthus graveolens (LAMIACEAE) Native Coleus

Plectranthus graveolens (LAMIACEAE) Native Coleus

A spreading, loosely branched, soft-wooded shrub to 1 m. Leaves to 10 cm are heart shaped, opposite, serrate, hairy and slightly sticky. Leaves are very aromatic when crushed. Flowers from spring to autumn. Flowers to 13 mm are purple blue in whorls on...

Pleogyne australis (MENISPERMACEAE) Pleogyne

Pleogyne australis (MENISPERMACEAE) Pleogyne

Twiner (vine) with stems and leaves fawn-pubescent, sometimes glabrescent (not hairy) with age, dioecious (separate male and female plants). Leaves with lamina ovate to lanceolate, usually 4-10 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, pubescent (hairy) with spreading soft...

Podocarpus elatus (PODOCARPACEAE) Brown Pine, Plum Pine

Podocarpus elatus (PODOCARPACEAE) Brown Pine, Plum Pine

A medium-sized to large evergreen tree growing to 30-40 m tall (less in cultivation) with a trunk up to 1.5 m diameter. The bark of this tree is dark brown, flaky and finely furrowed. Podocarpus elatus, commonly known as the Brown Pine, Plum Pine or...

Polyscias elegans (ARALIACEAE) Celery Wood

Polyscias elegans (ARALIACEAE) Celery Wood

Sparingly branched tree to 30 m high, glabrescent (smooth, shiny). Leaves usually bipinnate (except for some on flowering shoots only pinnate and with 5-9 leaflets), up to 100 cm long, secondary rachises to 12 cm long; petiole circular in cross section;...

Pomaderris ferruginea (RHAMNACEAE) Pomaderris

Pomaderris ferruginea (RHAMNACEAE) Pomaderris

Shrub 1–4 m high, stems rusty, pubescent with spreading simple hairs, often along streams, widespread in sclerophyll forest. Leaves lanceolate to elliptic, to 10 cm long, upper surface hairless and dull dark green; lower surface rusty-hairy. Flowers whitish...

Pothos longipes (ARACEAE) Pothos

Pothos longipes (ARACEAE) Pothos

Slender climber (vine) with wiry stems uses its roots to climb trees and rocks in moist rainforest from north-east NSW to north-east Queensland. Simple dark green leaves up to 8 cm long and 2 cm wide; these leaves have a prominent, expanded petiole, to 11 cm...

Pouteria australis SAPOTACEAE Black Apple

Pouteria australis SAPOTACEAE Black Apple

Pouteria australis, also known as Planchonella australis, is a rainforest tree with milky sap to 30 m in Queensland and New South Wales. It was first described as Achras australis by Robert Brown in his 1810 work Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae. Fluted...

Proiphys cunninghamii (AMARYLLIDACEAE) Brisbane Lily

Proiphys cunninghamii (AMARYLLIDACEAE) Brisbane Lily

Proiphys cunninghamii is a herb in one of the Lily families (it was previously in Liliaceae) found in lightly shaded conditions in rainforest and rainforest margins. It has attractive flowers and dark green heart-shaped leaves on long upright stems....

Psychotria daphnoides (RUBIACEAE) Smooth Psychotria, Turkey Bush

Psychotria daphnoides (RUBIACEAE) Smooth Psychotria, Turkey Bush

Attractive, open shrub with narrow glossy leaves and small white flowers in spring and summer and edible translucent white fruit, though there is not much sustenance to each one. This can be an attractive, compact garden shrub, where it grows lushly if well...

Psychotria loniceroides (RUBIACEAE) Hairy Psychotria

Psychotria loniceroides (RUBIACEAE) Hairy Psychotria

Shrub to about 3 metres in warmer rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest; widespread, north from Bega district, NSW. Leaves are simple, opposite, hairy and soft, pale green in colour, obovate to elliptic, about 5 to 10 cm in length. Propagation easy from...

Pteridium esculentum (DENNSTAEDTIACEAE) Common Bracken

Pteridium esculentum (DENNSTAEDTIACEAE) Common Bracken

Rhizomatous, perennial, herb (fern), to half a metre high in moist sandy soils, along creeks in eucalypt forest. Bob Mesibov, Research Associate, Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, Launceston notes that in most countries Pteridium spp. are considered...

Pteris vittata (PTERIDACEAE) Brake Fern

Pteris vittata (PTERIDACEAE) Brake Fern

This is one of the ferns (others include Nephrolepis spp. and even possibly Christella dentata) that are of uncertain origin in Australia. It is likely that P. vittata is native to some areas, but has almost certainly been introduced (from native or foreign...

Pultenaea euchila (FABACEAE) Pultenaea

Pultenaea euchila (FABACEAE) Pultenaea

Erect shrub with hairless stems in dry sclerophyll forest, on sandy to clayey soils, north from Lake Macquarie. Leaves alternate, narrow, obovate, apex rounded and often notched, margins usually incurved. A tough, drought tolerant shrub with showy yellow...

Pyrrosia rupestris (POLYPODIACEAE) Rock Felt Fern

Pyrrosia rupestris (POLYPODIACEAE) Rock Felt Fern

A fern on trees and rocks found from New Guinea down the eastern seaboard of Australia and into Victoria. The fronds have a succulent appearance. The fertile fronds are elongated, and up to 8 cm in length, while the sterile fronds are often nearly circular...

Rhodamnia argenta (MYRTACEAE) Malletwood, Silver Myrtle

Rhodamnia argenta (MYRTACEAE) Malletwood, Silver Myrtle

Shrub or small tree to 6 m found in all types of rainforest. Attractive silver-backed bushy foliage. Useful screening tree. Has a pronounced intramarginal vein, so much so that it looks three-veined. White and fluffy flowers in clusters, November to January...

Rhodamnia rubescens (MYRTACEAE) Scrub Turpentine

Rhodamnia rubescens (MYRTACEAE) Scrub Turpentine

Widespread small tree growing to 10 m. Branchlets brown, becoming downy at the ends. Occurs from southern NSW coast to Gympie, Queensland in subtropical rainforest, dry rainforest and on margins of rainforest and open forest. Simple, opposite with blade dull...

Rhodomyrtus psidioides (MYRTACEAE) Native Guava

Rhodomyrtus psidioides (MYRTACEAE) Native Guava

A shrubby tree to 12 m in wet sclerophyl and dry rainforest. This is one of the less well-known of our Enoggera species and one well worth cultivating. The young shoots are covered with fine hairs giving them a brown velvety appearance. Leaves are opposite,...

Rhodosphaera rhodanthema (ANACARDIACEAE) Deep Yellowwood

Rhodosphaera rhodanthema (ANACARDIACEAE) Deep Yellowwood

A medium-sized tree to 20 m along watercourses. Trunk is usually cylindrical or slightly buttressed. Heartwood bright yellow or yellowish brown when first cut. Coppice and young shoots hairy, downy with rust-coloured hairs which are very prominent on shoots...

Rhynchosia minima (FABACEAE) Rhynchosia

Rhynchosia minima (FABACEAE) Rhynchosia

Climbing or trailing herb; stems somewhat hairy and sparsely glandular, in a variety of habitats, mostly on heavy soils in grassland. A very variable species. Leaves 3-foliolate. Leaflets ovate to rhombic or circular, usually wider than long, lower surface...

Ripogonum brevifolium (SMILACACEAE) Small-leaved Supplejack

Ripogonum brevifolium (SMILACACEAE) Small-leaved Supplejack

Vigorous climber (vine) with stems up to 10 m long, opposite or alternate leaves up to 8 cm long and 3 cm wide, 4 mm to 8 mm petioles. Climbs using prickly stems and firm stiff spreading leaves. Creamy-white flowers on axillary racemes from August to...

Rubus moluccanus (ROSACEAE) Molucca Raspberry

Rubus moluccanus (ROSACEAE) Molucca Raspberry

A simple-leaved species which forms a scrambling shrub to 3 metres high. It is a native species, but its natural range extends far beyond Australia into south-east Asia. Moluccanus var. moluccanus has a shallowly lobed leaf, white petals and erect brown to...

Rubus probus (ROSACEAE) Large-fruited Raspberry

Rubus probus (ROSACEAE) Large-fruited Raspberry

Native raspberry with splendid bush tucker fruit is the equal of the exotic raspberry, but more fragile. The fruits are aggregates of succulent drupelets. Rubus probus can form dense thickets in good sun, therefore a good replacement for Lantana to provide...

Rumex brownii (POLYGONACEAE) Swamp Dock

Rumex brownii (POLYGONACEAE) Swamp Dock

Rumex brownii is a perennial to 1 m tall, with oblong leaves and flowers in whorls on an open branched inflorescence. The valves have three to five hooked teeth on each side. It is considered a weed in gardens. Plants can contain quite high levels of oxalic...

Scolopia braunii (FLACOURTIACEAE) Flintwood

Scolopia braunii (FLACOURTIACEAE) Flintwood

Small to medium tree, smaller in the open but larger in natural habitats such as warm temperate, gallery, riverine, subtropical and dry rainforest from Illawarra region to Cape York. Leaves to 10 cm, rhomboid shaped, with 2 to 6 angles along the margins,...

Senecio amygdalifolius (ASTERACEAE)

Senecio amygdalifolius (ASTERACEAE)

Perennial herb or shrub, mostly 80-150 mm high, in wet sclerophyll forest, often near rainforest or in rainforest regrowth. Leaves narrow-ovate to narrow-elliptic, mostly 50-120 mm long, 10-30 mm wide, base more or less rounded and often asymmetric, margins...

Senna acclinis (CAESALPINACEAE) Edge Senna

Senna acclinis (CAESALPINACEAE) Edge Senna

Shrub to 3 m tall with compound leaves to 15 cm long, each with up to 6 pairs of oval-shaped leaflets at about 15 mm intervals along the central spine. Found in coastal districts and adjacent tablelands of NSW from the Illawarra in NSW to Queensland, in or...

Seringia arborescens (MALVACEAE) Seringia

Seringia arborescens (MALVACEAE) Seringia

Tall shrub to 8 m high with young branches rusty-hairy, in moist eucalypt forest, widespread but not common. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, to 15 cm long, hairless or almost so on upper surface, hairy lower surface, petiole 5–10 mm long. Inflorscences are cymes...

Smilax australis (SMILACACEAE) Austral Sarsparilla

Smilax australis (SMILACACEAE) Austral Sarsparilla

Wiry climber with prickles. Also called Barbwire Vine and Native Sarsparilla. This climber has prickly stems, ovate green leaves to 100 mm long with 3 prominent veins, and white or pink-scented flowers. New growth is pinkish. Red or black fruit is only borne...

Solanum aviculare (SOLANACEAE) Kangaroo Apple, Poroporo

Solanum aviculare (SOLANACEAE) Kangaroo Apple, Poroporo

Common in moist regions of eastern and southern Australia, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand in margins of subtropical rainforest and as a regrowth plant in cleared scrubby areas. Soft-wooded shrub growing to 4 m with simple, alternate, margins entire or...

Stephania japonica (MENISPERMACEAE) Tape Vine

Stephania japonica (MENISPERMACEAE) Tape Vine

A scrambler or climber found in sheltered gullies. Heart-shaped peltate leaves that are firm, but not stiff, hairless. Small greenish flowers in spreading axillary compound umbels in summer. Shiny yellow-orange or red drupe fruits, 5 mm wide....

Sterculia quadrifida (STERCULIACEAE) Peanut Tree

Sterculia quadrifida (STERCULIACEAE) Peanut Tree

Foliage Medium tree to 6 - 18 m with simple, alternate leaves in pseudo-whorls, 5-12 cm, shiny bright green with long petioles. Deciduous in cooler areas. Requires good drainage and can withstand drought by means of a water conserving root...

Streblus brunonianus (MORACEAE) Whalebone Tree

Streblus brunonianus (MORACEAE) Whalebone Tree

A shrub or small tree to 15 m with downwardly arching branches, Whalebone Tree grows in all types of rainforest, particularly along scrubby watercourses. Small male flowers in short spikes, female flowers solitary, September to March. Edible yellow fleshy...

Syzygium australe (MYRTACEAE) Scrub Cherry

Syzygium australe (MYRTACEAE) Scrub Cherry

This commonly planted native is known as Scrub Cherry, Brush Cherry, Creek Cherry, Creek Lilly Pilly, and Creek Satinash or just Lilly Ppilly. It is very similar to Syzygium paniculatum which you can tell apart by looking at fresh seed. S. paniculatum is...

Syzygium oleosum (MYRTACEAE) Blue Lilly Pilly

Syzygium oleosum (MYRTACEAE) Blue Lilly Pilly

  Large shrub or small tree with rough, rusty brown bark in east coast rainforests from north Queensland to southern New South Wales. Syzygium from Greek syzygos, joined, referring to paired leaves and branchlets of a Jamacian species. Oleosum from Latin...

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui (APOCYNACEAE) Banana Bush

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui (APOCYNACEAE) Banana Bush

A shrub to 2 m found in Queensland, NSW, Pacific Islands, Melanesia, New Guinea rainforest and fringing forest along watercourses. Milky sap. This plant belongs to the same family as the highly poisonous Oleander and is toxic. Care should be taken. Leaves...

Tephrosia rufula (FABACEAE) Tephrosia

Tephrosia rufula (FABACEAE) Tephrosia

Open shrub to 6 m with hairy stems and yellowish new growth, greyish green foliage and small purple flowers for most of the year followed by slightly curved seed pods. A Fabaceae (or pea) which tolerates full sun in moist soils, and found in drier areas....

Tetrastigma nitens (VITACEAE) Three-leaved Water Vine

Tetrastigma nitens (VITACEAE) Three-leaved Water Vine

Vigorous woody climber (vine) with smooth, shiny leaves, palmately compound; leaflets mostly three. Leaf margins coarsely and regularly toothed. Teeth sometimes reduced to hard points. Brown flowers in dense axillary clusters from August to November. Each...

Themeda triandra (POACEAE) Kangaroo Grass

Themeda triandra (POACEAE) Kangaroo Grass

One of the most recognizable members of the grass family Poaceae in Australia. Also known as T. australis. A tufted perennial to 1.5 m tall and 0.5 m across. Leaves 10-50 cm long and 2-5 mm wide, green to grey drying to an orange brown in summer. Flowers in...

Thysanotus tuberosus (LILIACEAE) Fringed Lily

Thysanotus tuberosus (LILIACEAE) Fringed Lily

A perennial herb to 30 cm with a tuberous root system and lily-like flowers characterised by distinctive fringed margins. Widespread in grasslands and woodlands in South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. Leaves linear to more or less...

Toona ciliata (MELIACEAE) Red Cedar

Toona ciliata (MELIACEAE) Red Cedar

Medium to lage deciduous tree to 55 m (though this height now unlikely due to tip moth) in subtropical rainforest and scrubby areas, often bordering rivers and stream banks. A highly-prized cabinet timber rare because of exploitation. During European...

Trema tomentosa (ULMACEAE) Poison Peach

Trema tomentosa (ULMACEAE) Poison Peach

Woody shrub or small tree to 5 m, evergreen, young branches pubescent, useful in revegetation. Produces canopy quickly which can be lifted by trimming the lower branches. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, to 8 cm long, strongly 3-veined from base, main veins...

Trochocarpa laurina (ERICACEAE) Waddy Wood

Trochocarpa laurina (ERICACEAE) Waddy Wood

Compact shrub to crooked tree to 13 m. Bark grey to brownish black, corky, finely fissured to platy. Leaves alternate or in pseudowhorls at end of branches, new growth pink. The leaf blades have 5-7 more or less longitudinal veins, upper surface is glossy...

Viola betonicifolia (VIOLACEAE) Arrow-leaved Violet

Viola betonicifolia (VIOLACEAE) Arrow-leaved Violet

Tufted, herbaceous plant growing from 5-40 cm high depending on local conditions. Arrow-shaped leaves to 10 cm long from the base. In exposed situations, plants may die down to a perennial root-stock, particularly during a severe winter or drought. Plants...

Vitex lignum-vitae (LAMIACEAE) Lignum-vitae, Satinwood

Vitex lignum-vitae (LAMIACEAE) Lignum-vitae, Satinwood

  Medium tree to 30 m found in dry or subtropical rainforest from Richmond River, NSW to Cape York, North Queensland, and as far west as Bunya Mountains; found locally in the western suburbs of Brisbane and in D'Aguilar National Park. Also occurs in New...

Wikstroemia indica (THYMELAECEAE) Bushman’s Bootlace, Tie Bush

Wikstroemia indica (THYMELAECEAE) Bushman’s Bootlace, Tie Bush

Small tree or shrub, mostly to 1.5 m high widespread common on rocky, dry hillsides and edges of rainforest. Stems hairless (smooth) or sparsely hairy on juveniles and new growth, later smooth and shiny. Leaves to 6 cm, hairless, upper surface dark green and...

Zornia muriculata ssp angustata? (FABACEAE) Zornia

Zornia muriculata ssp angustata? (FABACEAE) Zornia

Habit Prostrate or decumbent perennial to about 30 cm high widespread in grassland and open forest. Leaves with 2 leaflets; lower leaflets more ovate, upper ones lanceolate to linear. Pea flower, yellow to orange with dark red markings. This could be Z....

Authors, Copyright, Credits, Disclaimers

Thanks to plant lovers everywhere, especially:

  • Australian National Botanic Gardens
  • Australian Plant Genera (Baines)
  • Brisbane Forest Park (BFP) plant books (Hauser and Young)
  • Create More Butterflies (Jordan & Schwencke)
  • Don Sands (Richmond Birdwing Recovery Network)
  • Encyclopedia of Australian Plants suitable for cultivation (Elliot, W.R. & Jones D.L)
  • Enoggera Rainforest Inventory (Blair Bartholomew)
  • Flora of South-easten Queensland (Stanley & Ross)
  • Fragments of Green (Janet Hauser)
  • Habitat Brisbane
  • Han Van Beek and Bob (Gardening Australia Nursery)
  • John Moss (Butterflies and other Invertebrates Club)
  • Mountains to Mangroves Vols I&II (SGAP)
  • Noosa’s Native Plants (Haslam)
  • NSW, Queensland, South Australia and Australian Herbaria
  • Peter Young’s BFP Plant list (compiled by Klaus Querengasser)
  • Rainforest plants of Australia (Jones, D.L)
  • Rainforest Plants Vols. 1-6 Nan and Hugh Nicholson
  • The Green Book (Williams & Harden)
  • The Red Book (Harden, Williams, McDonald)
  • Tim Low (author of New Nature, Feral Future, et al)
  • Weeds CRC
  • Wild Plants of Greater Brisbane (Queensland Museum)
 

A work in progress

 

We respect copyright and the protection it gives authors from unauthorised use of their material. This web site is a work in progress managed by volunteers. Despite our best intentions some older descriptions may not yet have been checked to ensure they have been edited and credited properly. Please contact SOWN if we have inadvertently carried over inaccurate or inappropriate descriptions from previous versions of the web site.

Photographs if uncredited are usually by either Mark Crocker or Robert Whyte.

 

Special thanks

 

Contributions have come from many SOWN and BRAIN members, too many to mention individually, although there are some who deserve special mention and thanks. They include: Vera Moffett, Matt Tomkins, Bill McDonald, Klaus Querengasser, John Moss, Kenneth McClymont, Robert Whyte, John Thompson, Bruce Noble, Dave Somerville, Derek Boddington, Paul Donatiu, Shealagh Savage, Martin Bennett and Graham Stephens.